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Anemonefish(Clownfish)

Anemonefish/Clownfish

眼斑海葵魚

公子小丑
Amphirpion ocellaris
Amphirpion Ocellaris is a marine fish belonging to the family Pomacentridae which includes clownfishes and damselfishes. Amphiprion ocellaris are found in different colors, depending on where they are located. For example, black Amphiprion ocellaris with white bands can be found near northern Australia, Southeast Asia, and Japan. Orange or red-brown Amphiprion ocellaris also exist with three white bands (like mentioned above) spanning from its body and head. Amphiprion ocellaris can be distinguished from other Amphriphon fish based on the number of pectoral rays and dorsal spines. Amphiprion ocellaris are known to grow about 110 mm long. Like many other fish species, females are, however, larger than males. The life cycle of Amphiprion ocellaris varies in whether they reside at the surface or bottom of the ocean. When they initially hatch, they reside near the surface. However, when Amphiprion ocellaris enters into the juvenile stage of life, they travel down to the bottom to find shelter from a host anemone. Once they find their anemone, they form a symbiotic relationship with them.
Bred up, FOB Taiwan 

鞍斑海葵魚

鞍背小丑
Amphirpion Polymnus
Amphirpion Polymnus is a small sized fish which grows up to 13 centimetres (5.1 in). Its body has a stock appearance, oval shape, compressed laterally and with a round profile.
Color ranges from dark brown to yellow orange with a thick white bar located just behind the eyes. A large white abbreviated saddle shape or slanted white bar across the middle of the fish's body makes it quite obvious to see how it got the name Saddleback.[4] In some varieties, typically those specimens initially associated with H. crispa anemone, the saddle shape may extend up onto the fish's Dorsal finwith a third white bar or margin located across the caudal peduncle (pictured in taxobox).
Melanistic variation has also been partially correlated with the fish's host anemone. Specimens associated with H. crispa tend to be darker than those associated with S. haddoni. Aquarium specimens have been observed becoming lighter or darker after accepting a new host anemone species, sometimes within a few hours. The external edge of the caudal and the anal fins are underlined with a white line. Thesnout and the pectoral fin are in any case of color variation orange yellow to brownish orange.
Bred up, FOB Taiwan 


粉紅海葵魚

咖啡小丑
Amphirpion Perideraion
Amphirpion Perideraion is a skunk clownfish found in the west Pacific Ocean. It is known to be one of the smaller clownfish. They can be found off the Cocos and Christmas Islands in the eastern Indian Ocean, and the Indo-Australian Archipelago. They may also be found in Tonga and the Great Barrier Reef.
Behavior with other fish in the wild includes sharing its host with Amphiprion akallopisos. It has successfully been bred in an aquarium.
Bred up, FOB Taiwan 



白條海葵魚

紅小丑
Amphirpion Frenatus
Amphirpion Frenatus is a clownfish that is found in the waters of the Western Pacific, from the Ryukyu Islands, Japan, to Malaysia and Indonesia. It is also known as the bridled clownfish, red clownfish, or tomato anemonefish. The adult fish is bright orange-red, with one white vertical stripe just behind the eyes, joined over the head. Some varieties have darker coloration or dark spots on their flanks. Juveniles are a darker red, with three vertical white bands and black pectoral fins. They can grow to 14 cm (5.5 in) in length, however the female is usually larger than the male.[2][3] The eggs are deposited on a flat surface and tended by the pair until they hatch (6 to 11 days). They prefer to nestle in purple anemones such as the bubble-tip anemone, Entacmaea quadricolor, or the Sebae anemone, Heteractis crispa. In the wild, the species eats zooplankton and algae, being an omnivorous species.
Bred up, FOB Taiwan 

克氏海葵魚

雙帶小丑
Amphirpion Clarkii is a small-sized fish which grows up to 10 cm as a male and 15 cm as a female. It is stocky, laterally compressed, and oval to rounded.
Amphirpion Clarkii
It is colorful, with vivid black, white, and yellow stripes, though the exact pattern shows considerable geographical variation. Usually it is black dorsally and orange-yellow ventrally, the black areas becoming wider with age.[3] There are two vertical white bands, one behind the eye and one above the anus, and the caudal peduncle is white. The snout is orange or pinkish. The dorsal and tail fins are orange-yellow,[4] and the tail fin is generally lighter in tone than the rest of the body, sometimes becoming whitish. Juveniles are orange-yellow with vertical white bands.
Bred up, FOB Taiwan 




Professional Anemonefish/Clownfish fish farm at Taiwan


Thomson Artwork (Group)
Ocean Corner Aquaculture Trade Co., Ltd.
Contactor: Anita Huang, croxword@gmail.com
Fax: +886.2.2961.9691
小丑魚屬於雀鯛科 Pomacentridae之海葵魚亞科 Amphiprioninae,本亞科可分成海葵魚屬(Amphiprion)27 種,及棘頰海葵魚屬(Premna)1 種,全世界28 種。臺灣周邊海域有5種分布,均為海葵魚屬,分別為公子小丑、鞍背小丑、咖啡小丑、紅小丑及雙帶小丑等,均可繁殖外銷,並可生產種苗供應全球市場需求。其次,來自國外之黑公子、黑邊公子、澳洲雙帶、所羅門雙帶、澳洲藍帶、玫瑰、透紅、金透紅、印度紅小丑及銀線小丑等 10 個 品種,也順利完成人工繁養殖技術研發。
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蔬菜對溫度日照條件的要求

蔬菜對溫度日照條件的要求
全日照  8個小時日照 瓜類、茄果類、豆類、山藥、豆薯(地瓜)。番茄、黃瓜、茄子、辣椒等喜溫中、強光性
蔬菜夏秋季生產,玉米、青椒、西瓜、南瓜、西紅柿、茄子、芝麻、向日葵類。
其次是根莖類,如:馬鈴薯、甜菜、胡蘿蔔、白蘿蔔、甘藷、山藥等等。至少需半日照,才能生長,芋頭雖喜歡全日照,但比其他蔬菜耐蔭。 
需要中等光照大白菜、甘藍、芥菜、蒜、洋蔥。 

長日性蔬菜白菜、甘藍、芥菜、蘿蔔、胡蘿蔔、芹菜、菠菜、萵苣、蠶豆、豌豆、大蔥、洋蔥。

短日性蔬菜豇豆、扁豆、莧菜、空心菜。         

中光性蔬菜黃瓜、番茄、茄子、辣椒、菜豆

菜豆

菜豆喜溫暖,不耐高溫和霜凍。菜豆種子發芽的適溫為20-30℃;在40℃以上的高溫和10℃以下的低溫,種子不易發芽。幼苗生長適宜氣溫為18-25℃。花芽分化的適宜氣溫為20-25℃,過高或過低溫度易出現發育不完全的花蕾、落花。

菜豆對光照強度的要求較高。在適宜溫度條件下,光照充足則植株生長健壯,莖的節間短而分枝多,開花結莢比較多,而且有利於根部對磷肥的吸收。當光照強度減弱時,植株易徒長,莖的節間長,分枝少,葉質薄,而且開花結莢數少,易落花落莢。

菜豆根系強大,能耐一定程度乾旱,但喜中度濕潤土壤條件,要求水分供應適中,不耐澇。生長期適宜土壤濕度為田間最大持水量的60%-70%,空氣相對濕度以80%為宜。開花結莢期對水分最敏感,此期土壤乾旱對開花結莢有不良影響,開花數、結莢數及莢內種子數減少。土壤水分過大時,下部葉片黃化,早脫落。空氣濕度過大會引起徒長、結莢不良。

菜豆具有深根性和根瘤菌,對土壤的要求不甚嚴格,但仍以土層深厚肥沃、排水良好的輕砂壤土或粘質壤土為好。土壤過於粘重、低溫、排水和通氣不良則生長不良,炭疽病重。菜豆喜中性至微酸性土壤,適宜的土壤pH為5-7.0,其中以州6.2-6.8最適宜。菜豆最忌連作,生產中應實行2-3年輪作。

菜豆生育過程中,主要吸收鉀和氮較多,還要吸收一定量的磷和鈣,才能良好發育。結莢期吸收磷鉀量較大。磷鉀肥對菜豆植株的生長發育、根瘤菌的發育、花芽分化、開花結莢和種子的發育等均有影響。缺乏磷肥,菜豆嫩莢和種子的品質和產量就會降低。缺鈣,幼葉葉片捲曲,葉緣失綠和生長點死亡。缺硼,則根係不發達,影響根瘤菌固氮,使花和豆莢發育不良。 耐陰半陰(大概3-4小時日照) 應選擇耐陰的蔬菜種植,如萵…

黑檸檬

黑檸檬
Dried lemons are actually limes and are used heavily in Persian Gulf and also Iranian cuisine where they add a strong bitter flavor in addition to sourness. They are made by boiling ripe limes in salt water, and then sun drying until the insides turn black. The outside color varies from tan to black. They are sold whole or ground.

Black Lime is a spice used in Middle Eastern dishes. It is made by boiling fresh lime in salt water and sun drying until the insides turn black. The outside color varies from tan to black. It is sold whole or ground.

黑檸檬實際上是使用萊姆,並且在波斯灣和伊朗料理中被大量使用,除了酸味外,它們還添加了強烈的苦味。它們是利用鹽水煮成熟萊姆,然後曬乾,直到內部變黑。外部顏色從棕褐色變化到黑色。他們可以整顆或切片販售。
黑檸檬是用於中東菜餚的香料。它是通過在鹽水中煮沸新鮮的檸檬並經天然乾燥,直到內部變黑。外觀從棕褐色變成黑色。
USE Black limes are usually used in legume, seafood or meat dishes. They are pierced, peeled or crushed before adding them to the dish. After cooking they become softer and edible. They can also be powdered and added to rice dishes. Powdered black lime is also used as an ingredient in Gulf-…

為何冰箱冷凍室非得是零下18度?

為何冰箱冷凍室非得是零下18度? 不少家庭的冰箱有led面板,可顯示冷藏室和冷凍室溫度。每次看到那個零下18℃,不少人,包括筆者在內就會禁不住提出一個小疑問:為什麼冷凍室溫度非得是零下18℃?最多零下1℃不就結冰了嗎?搞這麼低溫度實在是浪費電呢。

聰明如很多人是這樣推測的

百思不得其解,於是很多人,包括筆者在內就開始推測後面的機制了。冷凍室的零下18℃其實不費電,相反,它是節約電力的一個好措施。為何?

冰箱隔一段時間,內部溫度升高後,它就要啟動壓縮機,嗡嗡嗡的。頻繁啟動壓縮機不僅耗電,冰箱的壽命也會降低,還有就是很吵人。怎麼辦?簡單,先把冷凍室的溫度搞得低低的,比如零下18℃左右。


然後,冷凍室的冷氣往上走,來到冷藏室,如此,就能長時間保持冷藏室的溫度處於0到8℃以內了。

待冷凍室的冷氣散失過多,溫度升高到零下幾度時,再啟動冰箱的壓縮機把溫度再次降到零下18℃,如此,冰箱的啟動次數就變少了。

實際是這樣嗎?很遺憾,不是。

原因之一:不一樣的水

水到零度以下就結冰了,這是絕大多數人的認識。然而仔細一想,這不適用於冰箱的冷凍室。因為冷凍室存放的不是上百升礦泉水,而是各種各樣的食物。

食物中含有大量水這沒錯,但這些水同時含有大量的鹽、糖等物質。就像每1升海水中大約含有35克鹽,所以平均起來,要到零下1.33℃時海水才會結冰。

因此,要想把食物凍結,並不是溫度只要達到水的冰點就可以,得保證足夠低的溫度,食物中的水才能凍結,這很重要,因為食物中只要有液態水存在,這就等於是為各種細菌的繁殖提供了必備條件。

圖為牛肉薄片在不同溫度和不同時間內測得的牛肉中凍結水量的曲線。

當牛肉薄片的溫度為零下4℃時,只有70%的水分被凍結;溫度下降到零下9℃左右時,也還有3%的水分未凍結;即使牛肉薄片的溫度降低到零下18℃時,也不是100%的水分都被凍結住。

原因之二:嗜冷微生物

根據微生物對不同溫度的適應範圍,可將微生物分為三大類,嗜熱菌、嗜溫菌和嗜冷菌。在食物的冷藏和冷凍過程中,我們面對的「敵人」是嗜溫菌和嗜冷菌。

一般來說,能引起食物腐敗和食物致毒的嗜溫菌,在低於3 ℃情況下不產生毒素,當然,個別菌種例外。

而對於嗜冷菌,一般得在零下10 ℃到零下12 ℃時才會停止生長。

有的黴菌甚至要到零下15~零下18 ℃時才會停止生長。

瞧,我們以為,零下幾攝氏度後微生物就被殺死或停止繁殖了,但…