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澳洲養耕共生公司

聽一聽澳洲公司為何推廣養耕共生系統

Environmental Benefits環保誘因
Tomatoes in Aquaponics System
養耕共生系統的健康蕃茄
Reduced water use – with water being a scarce resource in Australia, it makes sense to use methods that reduce the amount of water used to produce the same amount of food. As the water from the fish tank is recirculated, the amount of water lost in the system is minimal. In conventional farming, the irrigation water is pumped out onto the land, only to be lost through evaporation, percolation or runoff. 
省水-在澳大利亞,水是一種短缺的資源,我們必須想辦法減少水的用量,並生產等量的食材。由於魚缸是循環水,水並不會快速流失。在傳統的農耕,地下水只通過蒸發,滲透或徑流而流失。
Lemongrass in Aquaponics System
養耕共生的健康暝檸檬草
Reduced chemical use – the need for chemicals is reduced dramatically in an aquaponics system, as the nutrient is made available to the plants by the fish waste. The use of chemicals in an aquaponics system can be harmful to the fish, and can disrupt the natural interactions of the fish and their environment. 
減少化肥用量 -養耕共生系統可以大量減量化肥,水產養殖的排泄物幾乎完全提供給農耕植物所使用。在養耕系統中,化肥的使用反而對水產是有害的,會破壞相互作用的自然平衡。
Reduces erosion by eliminating the need to plough the soil–the problem of erosion in Australia is immense, with many acres of precious topsoil being lost to water and wind erosion every year, and our waterways experiencing silt build-up. 
減少土地侵蝕-在澳大利亞土地侵蝕問題是非常嚴重的,每一年許多珍貴的地表土畝都因為水流侵蝕和風蝕,造成河道淤泥積聚。
Controlled environment reduces the need for pesticides– when an Aquaponics system is set up in a greenhouse, the likelihood of infiltration by pests is reduced dramatically.
農藥減量-養耕共生系統是建立在溫室,蟲害本來就是比較少的。
Several Aquaponics System Grow Beds
養耕植栽床

Commercial Producer Benefits商業誘因
Corn in an Aquaponics System
養耕玉米
Quality farm food production typically needs land with high quality soil and access to large amounts of water. Australia does not have much land that is classed as fertile, and the small amount we do have is expensive , therefore we need other ways of growing food that does not rely on equity. The beauty of Aquaponics is that any person can do it, regardless of their location, provided there is a supply of water. This water supply can be as simple as rainwater stored in tanks.
優良農產品通常需要沃土及大量的水。澳大利亞並沒有太多沃土,同時水是昂貴的資源,因此我們必須更珍惜擁有資源。而養耕共生正是立基於此任何人都可以做到,不管位處何地,只要有水源的補充的供應。那怕是簡單的雨水都可。 
Reduced running costs–the cost of running a conventional horticultural farm is huge, with the cost of tractors and all the implements needed reaching into the $100's thousands. With Aquaponic systems, there is no ploughing or spraying, reducing the need for large tractors which use large amounts of diesel fuel, and also reducing the need for the farmer to spend alot of their money on synthetic chemicals. 
降低管銷成本-傳統農耕需要大量的管銷成本,耕耘機就可能高達數千美金。養耕共生不須耕耘機或噴灑器材,減少大型耕耘機的柴油費用及農藥的費用。
Being exposed to chemicals is not good for us, yet we continue to use them to help grow our food. The farmer has more exposure to these chemicals as they are physically handling them in preparation of spraying. The farmer is also exposed while spraying the liquid, especially if the wind blows it back into the direction of the farmer.

Backyard Producer Benefits庭院誘因
Strawberry Leaves
養耕草莓
The reduced water use in an Aquaponics system compared to plants grown in soil is also a benefit for backyard growers, as many cities and coastal areas around Australia now have restrictions on the amount of water they are allowed to use.
在養耕共生系統中水是資源減量的,因為現在澳洲許多城市都限制庭院用水而花草樹木都需要水
Stop the backbreaking work of digging up the soil in the vegetable patch, Aquaponic systems are generally constructed so that the plants and roots are above ground level, giving you the opportunity to plant, grow and harvest all without hardly bending your back!
園丁工作的減量,養耕共生並不會讓您彎下腰
Seedlings Sprouting in an Aquaponics SystemAn Aquaponic system set up in the backyard can help to teach kids about how plants and fish grow, and to teach them about the ecological interactions that are occurring between the fish, the plants and their environment. 
庭院養耕共生系統更是親子間 植物和魚類間,有關生態平衡的最佳教材。

The great thing about Aquaponics as a learning tool, is it also produces healthy, organic food for the family, all year round. 
更好的是養耕共生一年四季都生產健康,有機食材

澳洲養耕共生公司


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蔬菜對溫度日照條件的要求

蔬菜對溫度日照條件的要求
全日照  8個小時日照 瓜類、茄果類、豆類、山藥、豆薯(地瓜)。番茄、黃瓜、茄子、辣椒等喜溫中、強光性
蔬菜夏秋季生產,玉米、青椒、西瓜、南瓜、西紅柿、茄子、芝麻、向日葵類。
其次是根莖類,如:馬鈴薯、甜菜、胡蘿蔔、白蘿蔔、甘藷、山藥等等。至少需半日照,才能生長,芋頭雖喜歡全日照,但比其他蔬菜耐蔭。 
需要中等光照大白菜、甘藍、芥菜、蒜、洋蔥。 

長日性蔬菜白菜、甘藍、芥菜、蘿蔔、胡蘿蔔、芹菜、菠菜、萵苣、蠶豆、豌豆、大蔥、洋蔥。

短日性蔬菜豇豆、扁豆、莧菜、空心菜。         

中光性蔬菜黃瓜、番茄、茄子、辣椒、菜豆

菜豆

菜豆喜溫暖,不耐高溫和霜凍。菜豆種子發芽的適溫為20-30℃;在40℃以上的高溫和10℃以下的低溫,種子不易發芽。幼苗生長適宜氣溫為18-25℃。花芽分化的適宜氣溫為20-25℃,過高或過低溫度易出現發育不完全的花蕾、落花。

菜豆對光照強度的要求較高。在適宜溫度條件下,光照充足則植株生長健壯,莖的節間短而分枝多,開花結莢比較多,而且有利於根部對磷肥的吸收。當光照強度減弱時,植株易徒長,莖的節間長,分枝少,葉質薄,而且開花結莢數少,易落花落莢。

菜豆根系強大,能耐一定程度乾旱,但喜中度濕潤土壤條件,要求水分供應適中,不耐澇。生長期適宜土壤濕度為田間最大持水量的60%-70%,空氣相對濕度以80%為宜。開花結莢期對水分最敏感,此期土壤乾旱對開花結莢有不良影響,開花數、結莢數及莢內種子數減少。土壤水分過大時,下部葉片黃化,早脫落。空氣濕度過大會引起徒長、結莢不良。

菜豆具有深根性和根瘤菌,對土壤的要求不甚嚴格,但仍以土層深厚肥沃、排水良好的輕砂壤土或粘質壤土為好。土壤過於粘重、低溫、排水和通氣不良則生長不良,炭疽病重。菜豆喜中性至微酸性土壤,適宜的土壤pH為5-7.0,其中以州6.2-6.8最適宜。菜豆最忌連作,生產中應實行2-3年輪作。

菜豆生育過程中,主要吸收鉀和氮較多,還要吸收一定量的磷和鈣,才能良好發育。結莢期吸收磷鉀量較大。磷鉀肥對菜豆植株的生長發育、根瘤菌的發育、花芽分化、開花結莢和種子的發育等均有影響。缺乏磷肥,菜豆嫩莢和種子的品質和產量就會降低。缺鈣,幼葉葉片捲曲,葉緣失綠和生長點死亡。缺硼,則根係不發達,影響根瘤菌固氮,使花和豆莢發育不良。 耐陰半陰(大概3-4小時日照) 應選擇耐陰的蔬菜種植,如萵…

黑檸檬

黑檸檬
Dried lemons are actually limes and are used heavily in Persian Gulf and also Iranian cuisine where they add a strong bitter flavor in addition to sourness. They are made by boiling ripe limes in salt water, and then sun drying until the insides turn black. The outside color varies from tan to black. They are sold whole or ground.

Black Lime is a spice used in Middle Eastern dishes. It is made by boiling fresh lime in salt water and sun drying until the insides turn black. The outside color varies from tan to black. It is sold whole or ground.

黑檸檬實際上是使用萊姆,並且在波斯灣和伊朗料理中被大量使用,除了酸味外,它們還添加了強烈的苦味。它們是利用鹽水煮成熟萊姆,然後曬乾,直到內部變黑。外部顏色從棕褐色變化到黑色。他們可以整顆或切片販售。
黑檸檬是用於中東菜餚的香料。它是通過在鹽水中煮沸新鮮的檸檬並經天然乾燥,直到內部變黑。外觀從棕褐色變成黑色。
USE Black limes are usually used in legume, seafood or meat dishes. They are pierced, peeled or crushed before adding them to the dish. After cooking they become softer and edible. They can also be powdered and added to rice dishes. Powdered black lime is also used as an ingredient in Gulf-…

為何冰箱冷凍室非得是零下18度?

為何冰箱冷凍室非得是零下18度? 不少家庭的冰箱有led面板,可顯示冷藏室和冷凍室溫度。每次看到那個零下18℃,不少人,包括筆者在內就會禁不住提出一個小疑問:為什麼冷凍室溫度非得是零下18℃?最多零下1℃不就結冰了嗎?搞這麼低溫度實在是浪費電呢。

聰明如很多人是這樣推測的

百思不得其解,於是很多人,包括筆者在內就開始推測後面的機制了。冷凍室的零下18℃其實不費電,相反,它是節約電力的一個好措施。為何?

冰箱隔一段時間,內部溫度升高後,它就要啟動壓縮機,嗡嗡嗡的。頻繁啟動壓縮機不僅耗電,冰箱的壽命也會降低,還有就是很吵人。怎麼辦?簡單,先把冷凍室的溫度搞得低低的,比如零下18℃左右。


然後,冷凍室的冷氣往上走,來到冷藏室,如此,就能長時間保持冷藏室的溫度處於0到8℃以內了。

待冷凍室的冷氣散失過多,溫度升高到零下幾度時,再啟動冰箱的壓縮機把溫度再次降到零下18℃,如此,冰箱的啟動次數就變少了。

實際是這樣嗎?很遺憾,不是。

原因之一:不一樣的水

水到零度以下就結冰了,這是絕大多數人的認識。然而仔細一想,這不適用於冰箱的冷凍室。因為冷凍室存放的不是上百升礦泉水,而是各種各樣的食物。

食物中含有大量水這沒錯,但這些水同時含有大量的鹽、糖等物質。就像每1升海水中大約含有35克鹽,所以平均起來,要到零下1.33℃時海水才會結冰。

因此,要想把食物凍結,並不是溫度只要達到水的冰點就可以,得保證足夠低的溫度,食物中的水才能凍結,這很重要,因為食物中只要有液態水存在,這就等於是為各種細菌的繁殖提供了必備條件。

圖為牛肉薄片在不同溫度和不同時間內測得的牛肉中凍結水量的曲線。

當牛肉薄片的溫度為零下4℃時,只有70%的水分被凍結;溫度下降到零下9℃左右時,也還有3%的水分未凍結;即使牛肉薄片的溫度降低到零下18℃時,也不是100%的水分都被凍結住。

原因之二:嗜冷微生物

根據微生物對不同溫度的適應範圍,可將微生物分為三大類,嗜熱菌、嗜溫菌和嗜冷菌。在食物的冷藏和冷凍過程中,我們面對的「敵人」是嗜溫菌和嗜冷菌。

一般來說,能引起食物腐敗和食物致毒的嗜溫菌,在低於3 ℃情況下不產生毒素,當然,個別菌種例外。

而對於嗜冷菌,一般得在零下10 ℃到零下12 ℃時才會停止生長。

有的黴菌甚至要到零下15~零下18 ℃時才會停止生長。

瞧,我們以為,零下幾攝氏度後微生物就被殺死或停止繁殖了,但…