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北京農村養耕共生

北京農村養耕共生

Carey Ma

One of the really great benefits of being active in the an aquaponics forum, such as the Aquaponic Gardening Community, is that I get to meet some of the amazing people who are doing truly incredible work around the world to promote aquaponics and address the needs of our post peak-oil world. One of those people is Carey Ma, an American living in Beijing, China with over twenty years experience in off-grid/ automated living. He has a plan to “establish a facility which will reduce the impact of agriculture on ecosystem functions and services by providing nature inspired, zero emissions, sustainable Agri-technology using integrated bio systems (IBS) in an urban/ peri-urban environment for the production of food & lifestyle enhancement amenities.” His ultimate dream is to build a Hi-Rise Farm, with each Farm feeding 10-30,000 of his neighbors while producing energy and clean water.


Below is an article Carey wrote about his projects in Beijing (re-published with permission).

Traditional (modern mono-crop farming) gives a Beijing area farmers with five mu (5/6 acre) about five thousand pounds (jin) of corn and another three to five thousand pounds of wheat per year @ about one Yuan per pound +/-), giving farmers about five to eight thousand RMB, (USD $0.80/person/day) income for a family to survive on for the year, after expenses.

With the system I am developing, (Carey’s Smart-Farm™), on five mu of land; I can produce an annual yield of thousands of pounds of wholesome foods; vegetables, fish, fruit, honey, meat, eggs, milk and processed foods. Even just a mu and a half of land (1000 sq M) will produce more than enough food to feed the average family of four, leaving much of the food to be sold for profit or bartered (traded) to help provide for other basic needs. It is quite possible for a family to live simply off five/ six mu (an acre), although it does require quite a bit of planning including business planning todetermine how to market and sell crops for additional income. With my program I hope to set up a network/ co-op to facilitate distribution of surplus fresh foods.

These new danwei (commune) villages will be comprised of similar mini farms with some, specialized production to meet the community’s needs. The specialized production units cooperate with other farms to manage and recirculated their waste. Once there is positive production, surplus can be traded as locally as possible. Local handcrafts would be able to compete fairly thus provide opportunity for creativity and truly remaster lost pride and craftsmanship. With pride restored, honor instead of robbery would be the new mantra and life will be good…as long as there is water and sunlight!

Cultivating a large vegetable garden is the first part of living off one acre of land. Just 12 garden beds (696 sqft) measuring four feet by eight feet each can produce a total of more than 2,000 pounds (one ton) of vegetables per year when planned carefully. The key to harvesting an abundance of vegetables is threefold. First is to grow multiple crops in the same area at different times AKA successive planting, e.g., crops such as spinach, peas, broccoli and beets can be planted and harvested in the spring, leaving the garden beds ready for planting of summer crops such as tomatoes, zucchini, peppers and corn. Once those are harvested, the cool-season crops can be planted again and grow into the fall, all in the same space. The second part is using intensive (permaculture) gardening, which combines companion planting, raised bed techniques, crop rotation with square foot gardening so every square inch and sunlight is put to use. Excess vegetables can be canned and stored in a root cellar to be eaten in the winter or sold to local members for profit. Lastly is using my hi-tech Smart-Beds™ combining the best of hydroponics and traditional organic practices along with my pre-“printed”, color coordinated, seed mats, make growing practically foolproof for even the youngest or newest gardener.

Diversity is the game nature plays, and to head her, means smaller losses when looking at the bigger picture. Diversity vs. mono cropping means having a bit of everything to fulfill a basic ecosystem (nutrient cycle). Like clean rainwater coming from the salty oceans and finally returning again, nutrients are cycled and recycled. So a bioscaped farm or farmscape should comprised of not only vegetables but also flowers, trees and an array of livestock, each having it’s own purpose and function.

Everything on my farm is grown with a purpose. I Grow fruit trees to add to the harvest of fresh produce and to reduce the heat and evaporation factors. When planting fruit trees, it is important to learn what trees grow best in the area and how much water you plan to use before attempting to grow them. In renting my plot, I inherited about 800 trees, mostly Apricot. Unfortunately due to poor choice or ignorance, my landlord left me with not much other than a big tangled, mess and will take several years to prune back and restore them back into production. So for now, their job is not to provide me with fruit but providing my chickens and other free-range fowl with more bugs and further supplement their diet with seasonal fruit and most importantly provide shade from the sun and shelter from hawks (yes we have two pair of red hawks in our neighborhood along with wild pheasant, amazing isn’t it? Right here in Beijing). [This was written a few years ago. Both hawks and pheasants disappeared the following year].

Grains do not make a very large profit when farmed in small quantities, so it is best to avoid trying to sell them but is good piece of mind for personal use and food security. In the off-season (winter), I use this grain to grow hydroponic grass in the greenhouse for my animals and myself, so we get super nutritious greens all year long. I plant small patches of grains such as oats, rye and wheat to help to supplement “the family’s” and livestock diet. For example, a 50-by-50-foot patch of wheat will yield about 100 pounds. Instead of just feeding this directly to my animals, I use 3/5 of it to grow wheatgrass at a rate of seven pounds of wheatgrass from one pound of raw wheat, so I get seven times the weight with more readily usable nutrients instead of just a bit of carbohydrates.

Often times, my farm looks more like it’s strangled with weeds, but in reality everything has a use. There is no waste on my farm. You can say my most important job isn’t growing vegetables but growing grass, making teas and raising worms. In nature, we often see symbiotic relationships without realizing it. I grow special (US University proven) pasture combinations for balanced meals for my livestock (bunnies, fowl, fish, goats, sheep and two horses). By continuously enhancing soil fertility, I hope to eventually show how it is possible to live sustainable and share more of my production in order to add on the rest of my plan for a true ecolonomic lifestyle instead of just a hobby.

I feed my soil and my soil feeds me. I believe that a lot of organic gardeners/ farmers are a bit too gung-hoe when it comes to composting. Yes it is a big part of the program but not the end all to producing great food. A popper application of foliar spray/ soil drench (above & below ground), and proper amount of minerals and trace minerals, work in combination to produce truly wholesome foods with fantastic taste and highly nutritional.

I believe it is a form of cruelty to make animals eat other than what nature intended. Stuff provided naturally through the test of time, (grasses and their grains, bugs and grubs etc) vs. an unnatural diet of corn & soybean, just to get it fat for slaughter. Just because an animal is meant for food doesn’t mean it has to be a victim. I truly believe in the saying, “ you are what you eat”. How can we be healthy and happy if our food isn’t happy and healthy? All my plants and animals live the best possible life I can give them and are slaughtered humanely along with a prayer.

“Thank thee o spirit of this harvest, for sacrificing your life so I may live”.
“May The Great Mother and Father bless thee on your journey in the here after”.
So mote it be”.

At present I would love to add canning to my garden efforts. You have no idea how much was wasted last year due to lack of transportation and external desire for fresh wholesome foods. Canning excess fruit and other micro industries is a necessity; to preserve it for eating during the rest of the year, and both fresh and canned fruit and other micro co-ops making other value added products like solar drying, fruit-skins, jams/ preserves, spiced oils/ vinegars, butter, ice cream, soaps etc. can be sold for additional, higher margin income.

To sweeten life a bit, I’d like to grow some stivia and keep one hive of bees. That will both pollinate my crop and produce about 100 pounds of honey per year, which is more than enough for “the family” (four people) to use as sweetener. Additional honey can be bottled and sold at our co-op farmers market exchange.

Keeping a dozen hens, will produce about 120 dozen eggs over the course of a year. This is enough for each person in a family of four to eat an egg every day, and with more chickens, additional eggs could be sold for profit. I hope to expand that to a hundred hens and two hundred roosters next year.

Tilapia and Barramundi are wonderful food fish with nice firm sweet, white flesh and not many bones. Their conversion rate is better than most and can tolerate pretty extreme conditions compared to other fish. We feed ours with a mixture of dried worms, dried veggies and starches as a binder. Coupled with a hydroponic system (Aquaponics) allows for even more symbiotic relationships which means more diversity and more production without sacrifice. What can be better?

Raising goats, sheep and cows for milk and later for slaughter is a great idea if one has the land. Traditionally, a cow will require at least a half-acre of pasture, but goats and sheep can be kept in a smaller pasture of a quarter acre per animal or much less by growing hydroponic fodder… so thank goodness I can grow hydroponic fodder.

A single dairy cow will produce about six gallons of milk per day, leaving plenty for making cheese, butter and selling locally. Sheep and goats also produce milk, although the taste will be different from the traditional cow’s milk. Personally, I like Jersey cow’s milk best but am going to try a small herd of sheep first. I can keep them in pens and walk them when the weather permits and maybe build a treadmill for them when it is not so nice outside.

Lastly I might try a few swine. A few pigs can supplement a patron’s family diet with some meat other than fish, chicken, eggs and lamb. Lard will be great for cooking and bones for making soap. What I really want from swine is the Methane that can be produced from their manure as well as a wonderful fertilizer after it has been through my dual process (anaerobic then aerobic) compost, making it safe and practically pathogen free. Pigs require only 150 square feet per animal, making them ideal for a one-acre (six mu) family farm.

In factory farms, young feeder pigs weighing 40 pounds will get to a harvest weight of 240 pounds within just 120 days, eating 10 to 12 bushels of corn and 125 to 150 pounds of medicated protein supplement during that time. My swine will take a lot longer to be edible but as I intend it to take over the job my puney noise makers are doing now (guard duty) and eat leftovers form our dinner to produce methane, instead of being dinner. I’m not worried about the extra time it takes to get to maturity. My only concern is that it would think itself a person and want its place on the sofa.

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蔬菜對溫度日照條件的要求

蔬菜對溫度日照條件的要求
全日照  8個小時日照 瓜類、茄果類、豆類、山藥、豆薯(地瓜)。番茄、黃瓜、茄子、辣椒等喜溫中、強光性
蔬菜夏秋季生產,玉米、青椒、西瓜、南瓜、西紅柿、茄子、芝麻、向日葵類。
其次是根莖類,如:馬鈴薯、甜菜、胡蘿蔔、白蘿蔔、甘藷、山藥等等。至少需半日照,才能生長,芋頭雖喜歡全日照,但比其他蔬菜耐蔭。 
需要中等光照大白菜、甘藍、芥菜、蒜、洋蔥。 

長日性蔬菜白菜、甘藍、芥菜、蘿蔔、胡蘿蔔、芹菜、菠菜、萵苣、蠶豆、豌豆、大蔥、洋蔥。

短日性蔬菜豇豆、扁豆、莧菜、空心菜。         

中光性蔬菜黃瓜、番茄、茄子、辣椒、菜豆

菜豆

菜豆喜溫暖,不耐高溫和霜凍。菜豆種子發芽的適溫為20-30℃;在40℃以上的高溫和10℃以下的低溫,種子不易發芽。幼苗生長適宜氣溫為18-25℃。花芽分化的適宜氣溫為20-25℃,過高或過低溫度易出現發育不完全的花蕾、落花。

菜豆對光照強度的要求較高。在適宜溫度條件下,光照充足則植株生長健壯,莖的節間短而分枝多,開花結莢比較多,而且有利於根部對磷肥的吸收。當光照強度減弱時,植株易徒長,莖的節間長,分枝少,葉質薄,而且開花結莢數少,易落花落莢。

菜豆根系強大,能耐一定程度乾旱,但喜中度濕潤土壤條件,要求水分供應適中,不耐澇。生長期適宜土壤濕度為田間最大持水量的60%-70%,空氣相對濕度以80%為宜。開花結莢期對水分最敏感,此期土壤乾旱對開花結莢有不良影響,開花數、結莢數及莢內種子數減少。土壤水分過大時,下部葉片黃化,早脫落。空氣濕度過大會引起徒長、結莢不良。

菜豆具有深根性和根瘤菌,對土壤的要求不甚嚴格,但仍以土層深厚肥沃、排水良好的輕砂壤土或粘質壤土為好。土壤過於粘重、低溫、排水和通氣不良則生長不良,炭疽病重。菜豆喜中性至微酸性土壤,適宜的土壤pH為5-7.0,其中以州6.2-6.8最適宜。菜豆最忌連作,生產中應實行2-3年輪作。

菜豆生育過程中,主要吸收鉀和氮較多,還要吸收一定量的磷和鈣,才能良好發育。結莢期吸收磷鉀量較大。磷鉀肥對菜豆植株的生長發育、根瘤菌的發育、花芽分化、開花結莢和種子的發育等均有影響。缺乏磷肥,菜豆嫩莢和種子的品質和產量就會降低。缺鈣,幼葉葉片捲曲,葉緣失綠和生長點死亡。缺硼,則根係不發達,影響根瘤菌固氮,使花和豆莢發育不良。 耐陰半陰(大概3-4小時日照) 應選擇耐陰的蔬菜種植,如萵…

蝶豆花

蝶豆花 原產拉丁美洲的蝶豆花是一種典型的熱帶蔓藤植物,全年盛開。
butterfly pea,拉丁語叫:Clitoria ternatea,泰語叫Dok Anchan
中文名叫蝶豆花,藍蝶花,藍蝴蝶、蝴蝶藍花,還有蝴羊豆、豆碧等別名。
用蝶豆花當作高品位浪漫的茶品飲用、以及當作天然食品色素制作糕點是拉丁美洲和南洋國家的風情和習俗。
蝶豆花的味道自然甘甜,南洋國家的一些五星級酒店通常把蝶豆花茶當作高貴的迎賓茶來接待貴賓。
營養價值 蝶豆花具有豐富的維他命A,C和E, 而且可以提高免疫力, 幫助和促進皮膚的彈力和骨膠原, 同時還具有補腦,促進腦的活力,防止胃痛,抗憂郁、抗壓力、鎮靜、止驚厥、緩和情緒等天然保健功效。
蝶豆花中的天然藍色素,也是有療效的。如果將其加入檸檬並調制成花茶飲品,就是保健心臟血管的絕佳飲料。
食用價值 蝶豆花的可食部位是葉、花及嫩莢。較幼嫩的葉片及盛開的花朵,亦可拿來煮湯、油炸等。用嫩芽來炒肉絲或煮熟後食用,都十分可口。蝶豆花的葉及花的萃取液,可當作純天然的食品染料。

直達香草(herb4kitchen)
PS.營業用批量報價

錦鯉養殖基本知識

◎飼養與管理的重點 只要不是劇烈的變化,錦鯉很容易適應各水溫水質等環境的變化。並不是沒有大庭園就無法飼養,有人甚至在二樓陽台或頂樓陽台造水池飼養。然而我們是欣賞錦鯉雄壯豪邁之氣,因此水池盡量寬闊為宜,以水深1.2m以上為理想。魚池必須有底水排出,過濾循環等設備。用水不一定要取地下水,自來水也可以飼養。
<因為都市中有景觀安全的需求,及屋頂花園有荷重的需求,錦鯉池水深可以低到30cm左右。>
◎每天排水
A、糞或枯死的藻類全部送至過濾槽的話,耗氧量會增大,pH就下降,更會轉變為亞硝酸,增了過濾槽的負擔。為了盡量減輕過濾槽的負擔,每天至少把魚池的底水排水使固物排出去,把中間水送去沉澱槽及過濾槽。 
B、把固體廢物的魚糞集中排出,最好不要從池底打氣而是從排糞口的上方40~50公分打打氣。如此氣泡往上昇。池水產生對流。污物就集中於排糞口。
<可以設計水流把固體廢物盡量集中或排出到過濾系統中。>
◎過濾槽管理
A、細菌附著於濾材,分解固體廢物會消耗大量的氧。 
B、溶氧不足時,厭氧菌會把硝酸還原亞硝酸,或從碳酸氣發生沼氣,也會從硫酸分解產生硫化氫等有毒氣體。
<如果溶氧不足,可以優先把打氣設備放置到生化過濾槽中。>
◎溶氧要充份
A、水中溶氧不足的話,會影響錦鯉的生育,飼料的消化,,水質的維持等等。
B、硝酸,亞硝酸的濃度增高時,會影響溶氧量。所以優先去除硝酸及亞硝酸。
C、使用沸石可輕易去除硝酸,沸石量約等重於魚體總重量。
<沸石再生法,是將沸石浸泡25℃以上1:10食鹽水數小時,再以清水洗淨即可。>
◎水質的控制
水質硬度高的話,錦鯉肌膚經常會有少許充血的狀態。豔麗性也會慢慢消失,紅緋會上升。pH值低,肌膚變的很不好看,但是雖餵增色飼料,依然不見起色,徒增浪費。pH值7.1~7.5最適宜的。
◎鯉餌的重要性
良好的魚餌不會崩壞鯉的體型。餌的量也是在夏天水溫 高的時候,訂定停餌期間,才是整體來說使鯉變胖最重要的秘訣。如果還是想 要給很多餌的話,要增加循還量。錦鯉在水溫超過28度的時候,應給與相當於 鯉全體重量3%的餌。水溫25度時1.5%,水溫20度時0.3%,16度以下則要停止鯉餌,這就是鯉魚長得強壯的要訣。連續不斷地給鯉餌的話,引起內臟障礙, 而影響到鯉不會長壯,甚至導至體型的變歪。
◎魚病預防
水的管理與定期消毒都是很重要的步驟,…