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北京農村養耕共生

北京農村養耕共生

Carey Ma

One of the really great benefits of being active in the an aquaponics forum, such as the Aquaponic Gardening Community, is that I get to meet some of the amazing people who are doing truly incredible work around the world to promote aquaponics and address the needs of our post peak-oil world. One of those people is Carey Ma, an American living in Beijing, China with over twenty years experience in off-grid/ automated living. He has a plan to “establish a facility which will reduce the impact of agriculture on ecosystem functions and services by providing nature inspired, zero emissions, sustainable Agri-technology using integrated bio systems (IBS) in an urban/ peri-urban environment for the production of food & lifestyle enhancement amenities.” His ultimate dream is to build a Hi-Rise Farm, with each Farm feeding 10-30,000 of his neighbors while producing energy and clean water.


Below is an article Carey wrote about his projects in Beijing (re-published with permission).

Traditional (modern mono-crop farming) gives a Beijing area farmers with five mu (5/6 acre) about five thousand pounds (jin) of corn and another three to five thousand pounds of wheat per year @ about one Yuan per pound +/-), giving farmers about five to eight thousand RMB, (USD $0.80/person/day) income for a family to survive on for the year, after expenses.

With the system I am developing, (Carey’s Smart-Farm™), on five mu of land; I can produce an annual yield of thousands of pounds of wholesome foods; vegetables, fish, fruit, honey, meat, eggs, milk and processed foods. Even just a mu and a half of land (1000 sq M) will produce more than enough food to feed the average family of four, leaving much of the food to be sold for profit or bartered (traded) to help provide for other basic needs. It is quite possible for a family to live simply off five/ six mu (an acre), although it does require quite a bit of planning including business planning todetermine how to market and sell crops for additional income. With my program I hope to set up a network/ co-op to facilitate distribution of surplus fresh foods.

These new danwei (commune) villages will be comprised of similar mini farms with some, specialized production to meet the community’s needs. The specialized production units cooperate with other farms to manage and recirculated their waste. Once there is positive production, surplus can be traded as locally as possible. Local handcrafts would be able to compete fairly thus provide opportunity for creativity and truly remaster lost pride and craftsmanship. With pride restored, honor instead of robbery would be the new mantra and life will be good…as long as there is water and sunlight!

Cultivating a large vegetable garden is the first part of living off one acre of land. Just 12 garden beds (696 sqft) measuring four feet by eight feet each can produce a total of more than 2,000 pounds (one ton) of vegetables per year when planned carefully. The key to harvesting an abundance of vegetables is threefold. First is to grow multiple crops in the same area at different times AKA successive planting, e.g., crops such as spinach, peas, broccoli and beets can be planted and harvested in the spring, leaving the garden beds ready for planting of summer crops such as tomatoes, zucchini, peppers and corn. Once those are harvested, the cool-season crops can be planted again and grow into the fall, all in the same space. The second part is using intensive (permaculture) gardening, which combines companion planting, raised bed techniques, crop rotation with square foot gardening so every square inch and sunlight is put to use. Excess vegetables can be canned and stored in a root cellar to be eaten in the winter or sold to local members for profit. Lastly is using my hi-tech Smart-Beds™ combining the best of hydroponics and traditional organic practices along with my pre-“printed”, color coordinated, seed mats, make growing practically foolproof for even the youngest or newest gardener.

Diversity is the game nature plays, and to head her, means smaller losses when looking at the bigger picture. Diversity vs. mono cropping means having a bit of everything to fulfill a basic ecosystem (nutrient cycle). Like clean rainwater coming from the salty oceans and finally returning again, nutrients are cycled and recycled. So a bioscaped farm or farmscape should comprised of not only vegetables but also flowers, trees and an array of livestock, each having it’s own purpose and function.

Everything on my farm is grown with a purpose. I Grow fruit trees to add to the harvest of fresh produce and to reduce the heat and evaporation factors. When planting fruit trees, it is important to learn what trees grow best in the area and how much water you plan to use before attempting to grow them. In renting my plot, I inherited about 800 trees, mostly Apricot. Unfortunately due to poor choice or ignorance, my landlord left me with not much other than a big tangled, mess and will take several years to prune back and restore them back into production. So for now, their job is not to provide me with fruit but providing my chickens and other free-range fowl with more bugs and further supplement their diet with seasonal fruit and most importantly provide shade from the sun and shelter from hawks (yes we have two pair of red hawks in our neighborhood along with wild pheasant, amazing isn’t it? Right here in Beijing). [This was written a few years ago. Both hawks and pheasants disappeared the following year].

Grains do not make a very large profit when farmed in small quantities, so it is best to avoid trying to sell them but is good piece of mind for personal use and food security. In the off-season (winter), I use this grain to grow hydroponic grass in the greenhouse for my animals and myself, so we get super nutritious greens all year long. I plant small patches of grains such as oats, rye and wheat to help to supplement “the family’s” and livestock diet. For example, a 50-by-50-foot patch of wheat will yield about 100 pounds. Instead of just feeding this directly to my animals, I use 3/5 of it to grow wheatgrass at a rate of seven pounds of wheatgrass from one pound of raw wheat, so I get seven times the weight with more readily usable nutrients instead of just a bit of carbohydrates.

Often times, my farm looks more like it’s strangled with weeds, but in reality everything has a use. There is no waste on my farm. You can say my most important job isn’t growing vegetables but growing grass, making teas and raising worms. In nature, we often see symbiotic relationships without realizing it. I grow special (US University proven) pasture combinations for balanced meals for my livestock (bunnies, fowl, fish, goats, sheep and two horses). By continuously enhancing soil fertility, I hope to eventually show how it is possible to live sustainable and share more of my production in order to add on the rest of my plan for a true ecolonomic lifestyle instead of just a hobby.

I feed my soil and my soil feeds me. I believe that a lot of organic gardeners/ farmers are a bit too gung-hoe when it comes to composting. Yes it is a big part of the program but not the end all to producing great food. A popper application of foliar spray/ soil drench (above & below ground), and proper amount of minerals and trace minerals, work in combination to produce truly wholesome foods with fantastic taste and highly nutritional.

I believe it is a form of cruelty to make animals eat other than what nature intended. Stuff provided naturally through the test of time, (grasses and their grains, bugs and grubs etc) vs. an unnatural diet of corn & soybean, just to get it fat for slaughter. Just because an animal is meant for food doesn’t mean it has to be a victim. I truly believe in the saying, “ you are what you eat”. How can we be healthy and happy if our food isn’t happy and healthy? All my plants and animals live the best possible life I can give them and are slaughtered humanely along with a prayer.

“Thank thee o spirit of this harvest, for sacrificing your life so I may live”.
“May The Great Mother and Father bless thee on your journey in the here after”.
So mote it be”.

At present I would love to add canning to my garden efforts. You have no idea how much was wasted last year due to lack of transportation and external desire for fresh wholesome foods. Canning excess fruit and other micro industries is a necessity; to preserve it for eating during the rest of the year, and both fresh and canned fruit and other micro co-ops making other value added products like solar drying, fruit-skins, jams/ preserves, spiced oils/ vinegars, butter, ice cream, soaps etc. can be sold for additional, higher margin income.

To sweeten life a bit, I’d like to grow some stivia and keep one hive of bees. That will both pollinate my crop and produce about 100 pounds of honey per year, which is more than enough for “the family” (four people) to use as sweetener. Additional honey can be bottled and sold at our co-op farmers market exchange.

Keeping a dozen hens, will produce about 120 dozen eggs over the course of a year. This is enough for each person in a family of four to eat an egg every day, and with more chickens, additional eggs could be sold for profit. I hope to expand that to a hundred hens and two hundred roosters next year.

Tilapia and Barramundi are wonderful food fish with nice firm sweet, white flesh and not many bones. Their conversion rate is better than most and can tolerate pretty extreme conditions compared to other fish. We feed ours with a mixture of dried worms, dried veggies and starches as a binder. Coupled with a hydroponic system (Aquaponics) allows for even more symbiotic relationships which means more diversity and more production without sacrifice. What can be better?

Raising goats, sheep and cows for milk and later for slaughter is a great idea if one has the land. Traditionally, a cow will require at least a half-acre of pasture, but goats and sheep can be kept in a smaller pasture of a quarter acre per animal or much less by growing hydroponic fodder… so thank goodness I can grow hydroponic fodder.

A single dairy cow will produce about six gallons of milk per day, leaving plenty for making cheese, butter and selling locally. Sheep and goats also produce milk, although the taste will be different from the traditional cow’s milk. Personally, I like Jersey cow’s milk best but am going to try a small herd of sheep first. I can keep them in pens and walk them when the weather permits and maybe build a treadmill for them when it is not so nice outside.

Lastly I might try a few swine. A few pigs can supplement a patron’s family diet with some meat other than fish, chicken, eggs and lamb. Lard will be great for cooking and bones for making soap. What I really want from swine is the Methane that can be produced from their manure as well as a wonderful fertilizer after it has been through my dual process (anaerobic then aerobic) compost, making it safe and practically pathogen free. Pigs require only 150 square feet per animal, making them ideal for a one-acre (six mu) family farm.

In factory farms, young feeder pigs weighing 40 pounds will get to a harvest weight of 240 pounds within just 120 days, eating 10 to 12 bushels of corn and 125 to 150 pounds of medicated protein supplement during that time. My swine will take a lot longer to be edible but as I intend it to take over the job my puney noise makers are doing now (guard duty) and eat leftovers form our dinner to produce methane, instead of being dinner. I’m not worried about the extra time it takes to get to maturity. My only concern is that it would think itself a person and want its place on the sofa.

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蔬菜對溫度日照條件的要求

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其次是根莖類,如:馬鈴薯、甜菜、胡蘿蔔、白蘿蔔、甘藷、山藥等等。至少需半日照,才能生長,芋頭雖喜歡全日照,但比其他蔬菜耐蔭。 
需要中等光照大白菜、甘藍、芥菜、蒜、洋蔥。 

長日性蔬菜白菜、甘藍、芥菜、蘿蔔、胡蘿蔔、芹菜、菠菜、萵苣、蠶豆、豌豆、大蔥、洋蔥。

短日性蔬菜豇豆、扁豆、莧菜、空心菜。         

中光性蔬菜黃瓜、番茄、茄子、辣椒、菜豆

菜豆

菜豆喜溫暖,不耐高溫和霜凍。菜豆種子發芽的適溫為20-30℃;在40℃以上的高溫和10℃以下的低溫,種子不易發芽。幼苗生長適宜氣溫為18-25℃。花芽分化的適宜氣溫為20-25℃,過高或過低溫度易出現發育不完全的花蕾、落花。

菜豆對光照強度的要求較高。在適宜溫度條件下,光照充足則植株生長健壯,莖的節間短而分枝多,開花結莢比較多,而且有利於根部對磷肥的吸收。當光照強度減弱時,植株易徒長,莖的節間長,分枝少,葉質薄,而且開花結莢數少,易落花落莢。

菜豆根系強大,能耐一定程度乾旱,但喜中度濕潤土壤條件,要求水分供應適中,不耐澇。生長期適宜土壤濕度為田間最大持水量的60%-70%,空氣相對濕度以80%為宜。開花結莢期對水分最敏感,此期土壤乾旱對開花結莢有不良影響,開花數、結莢數及莢內種子數減少。土壤水分過大時,下部葉片黃化,早脫落。空氣濕度過大會引起徒長、結莢不良。

菜豆具有深根性和根瘤菌,對土壤的要求不甚嚴格,但仍以土層深厚肥沃、排水良好的輕砂壤土或粘質壤土為好。土壤過於粘重、低溫、排水和通氣不良則生長不良,炭疽病重。菜豆喜中性至微酸性土壤,適宜的土壤pH為5-7.0,其中以州6.2-6.8最適宜。菜豆最忌連作,生產中應實行2-3年輪作。

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黑檸檬

黑檸檬
Dried lemons are actually limes and are used heavily in Persian Gulf and also Iranian cuisine where they add a strong bitter flavor in addition to sourness. They are made by boiling ripe limes in salt water, and then sun drying until the insides turn black. The outside color varies from tan to black. They are sold whole or ground.

Black Lime is a spice used in Middle Eastern dishes. It is made by boiling fresh lime in salt water and sun drying until the insides turn black. The outside color varies from tan to black. It is sold whole or ground.

黑檸檬實際上是使用萊姆,並且在波斯灣和伊朗料理中被大量使用,除了酸味外,它們還添加了強烈的苦味。它們是利用鹽水煮成熟萊姆,然後曬乾,直到內部變黑。外部顏色從棕褐色變化到黑色。他們可以整顆或切片販售。
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USE Black limes are usually used in legume, seafood or meat dishes. They are pierced, peeled or crushed before adding them to the dish. After cooking they become softer and edible. They can also be powdered and added to rice dishes. Powdered black lime is also used as an ingredient in Gulf-…

為何冰箱冷凍室非得是零下18度?

為何冰箱冷凍室非得是零下18度? 不少家庭的冰箱有led面板,可顯示冷藏室和冷凍室溫度。每次看到那個零下18℃,不少人,包括筆者在內就會禁不住提出一個小疑問:為什麼冷凍室溫度非得是零下18℃?最多零下1℃不就結冰了嗎?搞這麼低溫度實在是浪費電呢。

聰明如很多人是這樣推測的

百思不得其解,於是很多人,包括筆者在內就開始推測後面的機制了。冷凍室的零下18℃其實不費電,相反,它是節約電力的一個好措施。為何?

冰箱隔一段時間,內部溫度升高後,它就要啟動壓縮機,嗡嗡嗡的。頻繁啟動壓縮機不僅耗電,冰箱的壽命也會降低,還有就是很吵人。怎麼辦?簡單,先把冷凍室的溫度搞得低低的,比如零下18℃左右。


然後,冷凍室的冷氣往上走,來到冷藏室,如此,就能長時間保持冷藏室的溫度處於0到8℃以內了。

待冷凍室的冷氣散失過多,溫度升高到零下幾度時,再啟動冰箱的壓縮機把溫度再次降到零下18℃,如此,冰箱的啟動次數就變少了。

實際是這樣嗎?很遺憾,不是。

原因之一:不一樣的水

水到零度以下就結冰了,這是絕大多數人的認識。然而仔細一想,這不適用於冰箱的冷凍室。因為冷凍室存放的不是上百升礦泉水,而是各種各樣的食物。

食物中含有大量水這沒錯,但這些水同時含有大量的鹽、糖等物質。就像每1升海水中大約含有35克鹽,所以平均起來,要到零下1.33℃時海水才會結冰。

因此,要想把食物凍結,並不是溫度只要達到水的冰點就可以,得保證足夠低的溫度,食物中的水才能凍結,這很重要,因為食物中只要有液態水存在,這就等於是為各種細菌的繁殖提供了必備條件。

圖為牛肉薄片在不同溫度和不同時間內測得的牛肉中凍結水量的曲線。

當牛肉薄片的溫度為零下4℃時,只有70%的水分被凍結;溫度下降到零下9℃左右時,也還有3%的水分未凍結;即使牛肉薄片的溫度降低到零下18℃時,也不是100%的水分都被凍結住。

原因之二:嗜冷微生物

根據微生物對不同溫度的適應範圍,可將微生物分為三大類,嗜熱菌、嗜溫菌和嗜冷菌。在食物的冷藏和冷凍過程中,我們面對的「敵人」是嗜溫菌和嗜冷菌。

一般來說,能引起食物腐敗和食物致毒的嗜溫菌,在低於3 ℃情況下不產生毒素,當然,個別菌種例外。

而對於嗜冷菌,一般得在零下10 ℃到零下12 ℃時才會停止生長。

有的黴菌甚至要到零下15~零下18 ℃時才會停止生長。

瞧,我們以為,零下幾攝氏度後微生物就被殺死或停止繁殖了,但…