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自製高蛋白魚飼料

自製高蛋白魚飼料

Duckweed 浮萍

Growing duckweed in your own tank is one solution during the warmer summer weather. Its not an algae but a very small aquatic plant. Because the water in an aquaponics system is rich in nutrients, it is well suited to also grow duckweed which is 30% to 40% rich in protein providing the water is undisturbed and slightly shaded. Many fish will readily eat this tiny plant that doubles in size rapidly and is an excellent supplement to feeding your fish, but you will need heaps of it to keep your fish alive.
Recently while filming The Urban Permaculture DVD with Geoff Lawton, we came across a family who were growing around 100 silver perch fish in their family swimming pool. They said they don't feed their fish any fish pellets at all. So how did the fish survive? By eating the insect larvae and tiny crustaceans that grew in the pool but mainly – the algae that naturally formed on the sides of the pool.
在溫暖夏季中,水池中的浮萍就是高蛋白的魚飼料。浮萍是非常小的水生植物。因為在養耕共生系統中,肥水太多,就算覆蓋面積達到40%以上都沒問題,浮萍富含蛋白質並提供陰蔽。許多魚都會欣然吃了這種微小植物,因為生長迅速,浮萍是極好的補充魚糧,但你會需要它們成堆生長,以保持魚的活動空間。最近在拍攝Geoff Lawton的城市永續農業DVD專輯時,我們參觀了他們的家庭游泳池,其中有100條銀鱸。他們說他們從不餵魚,然而魚怎麼生存?通過吃幼蟲和微小甲殼類,但主要的是-泳池兩邊自然形成的浮萍。

Spirulina 螺旋藻

There are many varieties of algae but one of the champion varieties, Spirulina is one that has been written about a great deal. Mainly because it is extremely high in protein (60% – 70%) and has many other nutritional benefits as well. It is said to be rich in vitamins, minerals, and carotenoids (a type of antioxidant that can help protect cells from damage). Its full of all sorts of goodies, B complex vitamins, beta-carotene, vitamin E, manganese, zinc, copper, iron, selenium…in fact the list goes on and on.
有許多的藻類品種,但首選是螺旋藻。主因是為它的高蛋白(60% - 70%),以及許多其他的營養源,如豐富的維生素,礦物質,和胡蘿蔔素。它富含複合維生素 B,β-​​胡蘿蔔素,維生素 E,錳鋅銅鐵硒等。
Test tube and animal studies suggest spirulina may boost the immune system, help protect against allergic reactions, and have antiviral and anticancer properties. So many companies are now marketing Spirulina tablets in health food shops around the planet.
動物研究說螺旋藻可增強免疫系統,有助防止過敏,並有抗病毒和抗癌特性。所以現在生技產業都在推銷健康食品螺旋藻錠。
Recently a new documentary on Spirulina is being released advocating its super food status. If it's good enough for NASA astronauts to eat in space – then it might be good enough for your fish to eat as well?
最近對螺旋藻的新紀錄片紀錄了奇特的藻食品。美國太空總署說太空人都可以吃藻食品,我想魚應該也夠吃了吧?

Growing Spirulina 養藻

So how do you grow Spirulina as a viable source of fish food? Can you grow it in open tanks attached to your aquaponics system? Well you can grow it in a small heated aquarium but it will be difficult if you live in a cool climate zone.
你如何養藻?你能在養耕共生系統裡養藻嗎?你可以準備小的加熱缸,但如果氣候太冷可能有困難。
Spirulina only grows if the water temperature warm. The optimal conditions are a warm 35 degrees Celsius (95 degrees Fahrenheit). It will not grow in most back-yards over Winter where the temperature is well below that range. Below 20C it stops growing entirely.
螺旋藻生長溫暖水域。最佳條件是攝氏35度。它在低溫冬季不會生長。低於20度完全不長。
The other problem is the pH of the water. It needs very alkaline water at around a pH of 8-11 which takes it out of the comfort zone of growing plants and fish together (pH 6.8) and puts it into a system not recommended for aquaponics.
另一個問題是水的pH值約8-11,但是養耕共生的植栽和水產約需pH 6.8
So should we dismiss it as a viable system in aquaponics? Again, it depends where you live and how you manage your waste. Certainly for anyone interested in Permaculture methods that look at the broader picture, you need to look at your entire inputs and outputs and find other ways to integrate this method into your system. Here's a handy pdf guide on Growing Spirulina in greater detail.
所以,我們應該幫養耕共生想一個可行的方案,通常它取決於你的居住地及如何管理廢水。當然在永續農法中,需要看整個投入和產出,尋求其他途徑融入系統。這裡有一個養藻的指南(pdf版本)。

Turning a Problem into a Solution 把問題變成解決方案

In Ferende, Togo West Africa Dr Ripley Fox turned a problem into a solution. He had the right climate and pH. He found a way to turn malnutrition in the village and marginal farming into a thriving opportunity – growing Spirulina to feed their fish grown in concrete raceways. All human waste went through a bio-digestor that also supplied methane gas and output compost for their dirt gardens. Lack of sanitation had caused disease. Now it was under control.
The villagers were able to now earn a living selling fish in the community. A problem was turned into a solution.

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蔬菜對溫度日照條件的要求

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全日照  8個小時日照 瓜類、茄果類、豆類、山藥、豆薯(地瓜)。番茄、黃瓜、茄子、辣椒等喜溫中、強光性
蔬菜夏秋季生產,玉米、青椒、西瓜、南瓜、西紅柿、茄子、芝麻、向日葵類。
其次是根莖類,如:馬鈴薯、甜菜、胡蘿蔔、白蘿蔔、甘藷、山藥等等。至少需半日照,才能生長,芋頭雖喜歡全日照,但比其他蔬菜耐蔭。 
需要中等光照大白菜、甘藍、芥菜、蒜、洋蔥。 

長日性蔬菜白菜、甘藍、芥菜、蘿蔔、胡蘿蔔、芹菜、菠菜、萵苣、蠶豆、豌豆、大蔥、洋蔥。

短日性蔬菜豇豆、扁豆、莧菜、空心菜。         

中光性蔬菜黃瓜、番茄、茄子、辣椒、菜豆

菜豆

菜豆喜溫暖,不耐高溫和霜凍。菜豆種子發芽的適溫為20-30℃;在40℃以上的高溫和10℃以下的低溫,種子不易發芽。幼苗生長適宜氣溫為18-25℃。花芽分化的適宜氣溫為20-25℃,過高或過低溫度易出現發育不完全的花蕾、落花。

菜豆對光照強度的要求較高。在適宜溫度條件下,光照充足則植株生長健壯,莖的節間短而分枝多,開花結莢比較多,而且有利於根部對磷肥的吸收。當光照強度減弱時,植株易徒長,莖的節間長,分枝少,葉質薄,而且開花結莢數少,易落花落莢。

菜豆根系強大,能耐一定程度乾旱,但喜中度濕潤土壤條件,要求水分供應適中,不耐澇。生長期適宜土壤濕度為田間最大持水量的60%-70%,空氣相對濕度以80%為宜。開花結莢期對水分最敏感,此期土壤乾旱對開花結莢有不良影響,開花數、結莢數及莢內種子數減少。土壤水分過大時,下部葉片黃化,早脫落。空氣濕度過大會引起徒長、結莢不良。

菜豆具有深根性和根瘤菌,對土壤的要求不甚嚴格,但仍以土層深厚肥沃、排水良好的輕砂壤土或粘質壤土為好。土壤過於粘重、低溫、排水和通氣不良則生長不良,炭疽病重。菜豆喜中性至微酸性土壤,適宜的土壤pH為5-7.0,其中以州6.2-6.8最適宜。菜豆最忌連作,生產中應實行2-3年輪作。

菜豆生育過程中,主要吸收鉀和氮較多,還要吸收一定量的磷和鈣,才能良好發育。結莢期吸收磷鉀量較大。磷鉀肥對菜豆植株的生長發育、根瘤菌的發育、花芽分化、開花結莢和種子的發育等均有影響。缺乏磷肥,菜豆嫩莢和種子的品質和產量就會降低。缺鈣,幼葉葉片捲曲,葉緣失綠和生長點死亡。缺硼,則根係不發達,影響根瘤菌固氮,使花和豆莢發育不良。 耐陰半陰(大概3-4小時日照) 應選擇耐陰的蔬菜種植,如萵…

蝶豆花

蝶豆花 原產拉丁美洲的蝶豆花是一種典型的熱帶蔓藤植物,全年盛開。
butterfly pea,拉丁語叫:Clitoria ternatea,泰語叫Dok Anchan
中文名叫蝶豆花,藍蝶花,藍蝴蝶、蝴蝶藍花,還有蝴羊豆、豆碧等別名。
用蝶豆花當作高品位浪漫的茶品飲用、以及當作天然食品色素制作糕點是拉丁美洲和南洋國家的風情和習俗。
蝶豆花的味道自然甘甜,南洋國家的一些五星級酒店通常把蝶豆花茶當作高貴的迎賓茶來接待貴賓。
營養價值 蝶豆花具有豐富的維他命A,C和E, 而且可以提高免疫力, 幫助和促進皮膚的彈力和骨膠原, 同時還具有補腦,促進腦的活力,防止胃痛,抗憂郁、抗壓力、鎮靜、止驚厥、緩和情緒等天然保健功效。
蝶豆花中的天然藍色素,也是有療效的。如果將其加入檸檬並調制成花茶飲品,就是保健心臟血管的絕佳飲料。
食用價值 蝶豆花的可食部位是葉、花及嫩莢。較幼嫩的葉片及盛開的花朵,亦可拿來煮湯、油炸等。用嫩芽來炒肉絲或煮熟後食用,都十分可口。蝶豆花的葉及花的萃取液,可當作純天然的食品染料。

直達香草(herb4kitchen)
PS.營業用批量報價

錦鯉養殖基本知識

◎飼養與管理的重點 只要不是劇烈的變化,錦鯉很容易適應各水溫水質等環境的變化。並不是沒有大庭園就無法飼養,有人甚至在二樓陽台或頂樓陽台造水池飼養。然而我們是欣賞錦鯉雄壯豪邁之氣,因此水池盡量寬闊為宜,以水深1.2m以上為理想。魚池必須有底水排出,過濾循環等設備。用水不一定要取地下水,自來水也可以飼養。
<因為都市中有景觀安全的需求,及屋頂花園有荷重的需求,錦鯉池水深可以低到30cm左右。>
◎每天排水
A、糞或枯死的藻類全部送至過濾槽的話,耗氧量會增大,pH就下降,更會轉變為亞硝酸,增了過濾槽的負擔。為了盡量減輕過濾槽的負擔,每天至少把魚池的底水排水使固物排出去,把中間水送去沉澱槽及過濾槽。 
B、把固體廢物的魚糞集中排出,最好不要從池底打氣而是從排糞口的上方40~50公分打打氣。如此氣泡往上昇。池水產生對流。污物就集中於排糞口。
<可以設計水流把固體廢物盡量集中或排出到過濾系統中。>
◎過濾槽管理
A、細菌附著於濾材,分解固體廢物會消耗大量的氧。 
B、溶氧不足時,厭氧菌會把硝酸還原亞硝酸,或從碳酸氣發生沼氣,也會從硫酸分解產生硫化氫等有毒氣體。
<如果溶氧不足,可以優先把打氣設備放置到生化過濾槽中。>
◎溶氧要充份
A、水中溶氧不足的話,會影響錦鯉的生育,飼料的消化,,水質的維持等等。
B、硝酸,亞硝酸的濃度增高時,會影響溶氧量。所以優先去除硝酸及亞硝酸。
C、使用沸石可輕易去除硝酸,沸石量約等重於魚體總重量。
<沸石再生法,是將沸石浸泡25℃以上1:10食鹽水數小時,再以清水洗淨即可。>
◎水質的控制
水質硬度高的話,錦鯉肌膚經常會有少許充血的狀態。豔麗性也會慢慢消失,紅緋會上升。pH值低,肌膚變的很不好看,但是雖餵增色飼料,依然不見起色,徒增浪費。pH值7.1~7.5最適宜的。
◎鯉餌的重要性
良好的魚餌不會崩壞鯉的體型。餌的量也是在夏天水溫 高的時候,訂定停餌期間,才是整體來說使鯉變胖最重要的秘訣。如果還是想 要給很多餌的話,要增加循還量。錦鯉在水溫超過28度的時候,應給與相當於 鯉全體重量3%的餌。水溫25度時1.5%,水溫20度時0.3%,16度以下則要停止鯉餌,這就是鯉魚長得強壯的要訣。連續不斷地給鯉餌的話,引起內臟障礙, 而影響到鯉不會長壯,甚至導至體型的變歪。
◎魚病預防
水的管理與定期消毒都是很重要的步驟,…