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自製高蛋白魚飼料

自製高蛋白魚飼料

Duckweed 浮萍

Growing duckweed in your own tank is one solution during the warmer summer weather. Its not an algae but a very small aquatic plant. Because the water in an aquaponics system is rich in nutrients, it is well suited to also grow duckweed which is 30% to 40% rich in protein providing the water is undisturbed and slightly shaded. Many fish will readily eat this tiny plant that doubles in size rapidly and is an excellent supplement to feeding your fish, but you will need heaps of it to keep your fish alive.
Recently while filming The Urban Permaculture DVD with Geoff Lawton, we came across a family who were growing around 100 silver perch fish in their family swimming pool. They said they don't feed their fish any fish pellets at all. So how did the fish survive? By eating the insect larvae and tiny crustaceans that grew in the pool but mainly – the algae that naturally formed on the sides of the pool.
在溫暖夏季中,水池中的浮萍就是高蛋白的魚飼料。浮萍是非常小的水生植物。因為在養耕共生系統中,肥水太多,就算覆蓋面積達到40%以上都沒問題,浮萍富含蛋白質並提供陰蔽。許多魚都會欣然吃了這種微小植物,因為生長迅速,浮萍是極好的補充魚糧,但你會需要它們成堆生長,以保持魚的活動空間。最近在拍攝Geoff Lawton的城市永續農業DVD專輯時,我們參觀了他們的家庭游泳池,其中有100條銀鱸。他們說他們從不餵魚,然而魚怎麼生存?通過吃幼蟲和微小甲殼類,但主要的是-泳池兩邊自然形成的浮萍。

Spirulina 螺旋藻

There are many varieties of algae but one of the champion varieties, Spirulina is one that has been written about a great deal. Mainly because it is extremely high in protein (60% – 70%) and has many other nutritional benefits as well. It is said to be rich in vitamins, minerals, and carotenoids (a type of antioxidant that can help protect cells from damage). Its full of all sorts of goodies, B complex vitamins, beta-carotene, vitamin E, manganese, zinc, copper, iron, selenium…in fact the list goes on and on.
有許多的藻類品種,但首選是螺旋藻。主因是為它的高蛋白(60% - 70%),以及許多其他的營養源,如豐富的維生素,礦物質,和胡蘿蔔素。它富含複合維生素 B,β-​​胡蘿蔔素,維生素 E,錳鋅銅鐵硒等。
Test tube and animal studies suggest spirulina may boost the immune system, help protect against allergic reactions, and have antiviral and anticancer properties. So many companies are now marketing Spirulina tablets in health food shops around the planet.
動物研究說螺旋藻可增強免疫系統,有助防止過敏,並有抗病毒和抗癌特性。所以現在生技產業都在推銷健康食品螺旋藻錠。
Recently a new documentary on Spirulina is being released advocating its super food status. If it's good enough for NASA astronauts to eat in space – then it might be good enough for your fish to eat as well?
最近對螺旋藻的新紀錄片紀錄了奇特的藻食品。美國太空總署說太空人都可以吃藻食品,我想魚應該也夠吃了吧?

Growing Spirulina 養藻

So how do you grow Spirulina as a viable source of fish food? Can you grow it in open tanks attached to your aquaponics system? Well you can grow it in a small heated aquarium but it will be difficult if you live in a cool climate zone.
你如何養藻?你能在養耕共生系統裡養藻嗎?你可以準備小的加熱缸,但如果氣候太冷可能有困難。
Spirulina only grows if the water temperature warm. The optimal conditions are a warm 35 degrees Celsius (95 degrees Fahrenheit). It will not grow in most back-yards over Winter where the temperature is well below that range. Below 20C it stops growing entirely.
螺旋藻生長溫暖水域。最佳條件是攝氏35度。它在低溫冬季不會生長。低於20度完全不長。
The other problem is the pH of the water. It needs very alkaline water at around a pH of 8-11 which takes it out of the comfort zone of growing plants and fish together (pH 6.8) and puts it into a system not recommended for aquaponics.
另一個問題是水的pH值約8-11,但是養耕共生的植栽和水產約需pH 6.8
So should we dismiss it as a viable system in aquaponics? Again, it depends where you live and how you manage your waste. Certainly for anyone interested in Permaculture methods that look at the broader picture, you need to look at your entire inputs and outputs and find other ways to integrate this method into your system. Here's a handy pdf guide on Growing Spirulina in greater detail.
所以,我們應該幫養耕共生想一個可行的方案,通常它取決於你的居住地及如何管理廢水。當然在永續農法中,需要看整個投入和產出,尋求其他途徑融入系統。這裡有一個養藻的指南(pdf版本)。

Turning a Problem into a Solution 把問題變成解決方案

In Ferende, Togo West Africa Dr Ripley Fox turned a problem into a solution. He had the right climate and pH. He found a way to turn malnutrition in the village and marginal farming into a thriving opportunity – growing Spirulina to feed their fish grown in concrete raceways. All human waste went through a bio-digestor that also supplied methane gas and output compost for their dirt gardens. Lack of sanitation had caused disease. Now it was under control.
The villagers were able to now earn a living selling fish in the community. A problem was turned into a solution.

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蔬菜對溫度日照條件的要求

蔬菜對溫度日照條件的要求
全日照  8個小時日照 瓜類、茄果類、豆類、山藥、豆薯(地瓜)。番茄、黃瓜、茄子、辣椒等喜溫中、強光性
蔬菜夏秋季生產,玉米、青椒、西瓜、南瓜、西紅柿、茄子、芝麻、向日葵類。
其次是根莖類,如:馬鈴薯、甜菜、胡蘿蔔、白蘿蔔、甘藷、山藥等等。至少需半日照,才能生長,芋頭雖喜歡全日照,但比其他蔬菜耐蔭。 
需要中等光照大白菜、甘藍、芥菜、蒜、洋蔥。 

長日性蔬菜白菜、甘藍、芥菜、蘿蔔、胡蘿蔔、芹菜、菠菜、萵苣、蠶豆、豌豆、大蔥、洋蔥。

短日性蔬菜豇豆、扁豆、莧菜、空心菜。         

中光性蔬菜黃瓜、番茄、茄子、辣椒、菜豆

菜豆

菜豆喜溫暖,不耐高溫和霜凍。菜豆種子發芽的適溫為20-30℃;在40℃以上的高溫和10℃以下的低溫,種子不易發芽。幼苗生長適宜氣溫為18-25℃。花芽分化的適宜氣溫為20-25℃,過高或過低溫度易出現發育不完全的花蕾、落花。

菜豆對光照強度的要求較高。在適宜溫度條件下,光照充足則植株生長健壯,莖的節間短而分枝多,開花結莢比較多,而且有利於根部對磷肥的吸收。當光照強度減弱時,植株易徒長,莖的節間長,分枝少,葉質薄,而且開花結莢數少,易落花落莢。

菜豆根系強大,能耐一定程度乾旱,但喜中度濕潤土壤條件,要求水分供應適中,不耐澇。生長期適宜土壤濕度為田間最大持水量的60%-70%,空氣相對濕度以80%為宜。開花結莢期對水分最敏感,此期土壤乾旱對開花結莢有不良影響,開花數、結莢數及莢內種子數減少。土壤水分過大時,下部葉片黃化,早脫落。空氣濕度過大會引起徒長、結莢不良。

菜豆具有深根性和根瘤菌,對土壤的要求不甚嚴格,但仍以土層深厚肥沃、排水良好的輕砂壤土或粘質壤土為好。土壤過於粘重、低溫、排水和通氣不良則生長不良,炭疽病重。菜豆喜中性至微酸性土壤,適宜的土壤pH為5-7.0,其中以州6.2-6.8最適宜。菜豆最忌連作,生產中應實行2-3年輪作。

菜豆生育過程中,主要吸收鉀和氮較多,還要吸收一定量的磷和鈣,才能良好發育。結莢期吸收磷鉀量較大。磷鉀肥對菜豆植株的生長發育、根瘤菌的發育、花芽分化、開花結莢和種子的發育等均有影響。缺乏磷肥,菜豆嫩莢和種子的品質和產量就會降低。缺鈣,幼葉葉片捲曲,葉緣失綠和生長點死亡。缺硼,則根係不發達,影響根瘤菌固氮,使花和豆莢發育不良。 耐陰半陰(大概3-4小時日照) 應選擇耐陰的蔬菜種植,如萵…

黑檸檬

黑檸檬
Dried lemons are actually limes and are used heavily in Persian Gulf and also Iranian cuisine where they add a strong bitter flavor in addition to sourness. They are made by boiling ripe limes in salt water, and then sun drying until the insides turn black. The outside color varies from tan to black. They are sold whole or ground.

Black Lime is a spice used in Middle Eastern dishes. It is made by boiling fresh lime in salt water and sun drying until the insides turn black. The outside color varies from tan to black. It is sold whole or ground.

黑檸檬實際上是使用萊姆,並且在波斯灣和伊朗料理中被大量使用,除了酸味外,它們還添加了強烈的苦味。它們是利用鹽水煮成熟萊姆,然後曬乾,直到內部變黑。外部顏色從棕褐色變化到黑色。他們可以整顆或切片販售。
黑檸檬是用於中東菜餚的香料。它是通過在鹽水中煮沸新鮮的檸檬並經天然乾燥,直到內部變黑。外觀從棕褐色變成黑色。
USE Black limes are usually used in legume, seafood or meat dishes. They are pierced, peeled or crushed before adding them to the dish. After cooking they become softer and edible. They can also be powdered and added to rice dishes. Powdered black lime is also used as an ingredient in Gulf-…

為何冰箱冷凍室非得是零下18度?

為何冰箱冷凍室非得是零下18度? 不少家庭的冰箱有led面板,可顯示冷藏室和冷凍室溫度。每次看到那個零下18℃,不少人,包括筆者在內就會禁不住提出一個小疑問:為什麼冷凍室溫度非得是零下18℃?最多零下1℃不就結冰了嗎?搞這麼低溫度實在是浪費電呢。

聰明如很多人是這樣推測的

百思不得其解,於是很多人,包括筆者在內就開始推測後面的機制了。冷凍室的零下18℃其實不費電,相反,它是節約電力的一個好措施。為何?

冰箱隔一段時間,內部溫度升高後,它就要啟動壓縮機,嗡嗡嗡的。頻繁啟動壓縮機不僅耗電,冰箱的壽命也會降低,還有就是很吵人。怎麼辦?簡單,先把冷凍室的溫度搞得低低的,比如零下18℃左右。


然後,冷凍室的冷氣往上走,來到冷藏室,如此,就能長時間保持冷藏室的溫度處於0到8℃以內了。

待冷凍室的冷氣散失過多,溫度升高到零下幾度時,再啟動冰箱的壓縮機把溫度再次降到零下18℃,如此,冰箱的啟動次數就變少了。

實際是這樣嗎?很遺憾,不是。

原因之一:不一樣的水

水到零度以下就結冰了,這是絕大多數人的認識。然而仔細一想,這不適用於冰箱的冷凍室。因為冷凍室存放的不是上百升礦泉水,而是各種各樣的食物。

食物中含有大量水這沒錯,但這些水同時含有大量的鹽、糖等物質。就像每1升海水中大約含有35克鹽,所以平均起來,要到零下1.33℃時海水才會結冰。

因此,要想把食物凍結,並不是溫度只要達到水的冰點就可以,得保證足夠低的溫度,食物中的水才能凍結,這很重要,因為食物中只要有液態水存在,這就等於是為各種細菌的繁殖提供了必備條件。

圖為牛肉薄片在不同溫度和不同時間內測得的牛肉中凍結水量的曲線。

當牛肉薄片的溫度為零下4℃時,只有70%的水分被凍結;溫度下降到零下9℃左右時,也還有3%的水分未凍結;即使牛肉薄片的溫度降低到零下18℃時,也不是100%的水分都被凍結住。

原因之二:嗜冷微生物

根據微生物對不同溫度的適應範圍,可將微生物分為三大類,嗜熱菌、嗜溫菌和嗜冷菌。在食物的冷藏和冷凍過程中,我們面對的「敵人」是嗜溫菌和嗜冷菌。

一般來說,能引起食物腐敗和食物致毒的嗜溫菌,在低於3 ℃情況下不產生毒素,當然,個別菌種例外。

而對於嗜冷菌,一般得在零下10 ℃到零下12 ℃時才會停止生長。

有的黴菌甚至要到零下15~零下18 ℃時才會停止生長。

瞧,我們以為,零下幾攝氏度後微生物就被殺死或停止繁殖了,但…