跳到主要內容

種向天際-屋頂農場

Rooftops take urban farming to the skies

Short on space? Grow your own local, sustainable food against a city skyline

種到天上-屋頂花園

缺乏空間嗎?在天際線上的永續農業

Eagle Street Rooftop Farms

Farming brings urbanites closer to the food they eat and, when executed correctly, can also address some of a city’s most pressing eco-challenges.
By Marisa Belger

For the majority of my life in New York City, the words “urban agriculture” meant nothing more than a collection of chipped ceramic pots clustered together on a fire escape. I spent years tending to (then ignoring) those pots, which housed a variety of struggling herbs. Wilting basil, dried-out Italian parsley and undernourished lavender — I had it all.

I heard rumors of New Yorkers with flourishing vegetable gardens in their backyards, but I personally knew of no such folks and even if I did, nothing said they would be willing to share. Each week I tried to hit my local green market, filled with food grown in upstate New York, New Jersey and Pennsylvania, but when I missed it, I hung my head in shame and continued to buy my overpriced — and often imported — organic produce from Whole Foods and the like.
I looked for better options for fresh, superlocal organic fruits and veggies, but unless the city volunteered to give up part of Central or Prospect Park for farming, my city simply didn’t have the space. Until somebody smart looked up.
Thinking outside the box
New York City may lack wide-open spaces, but it’s rich in rooftops. Every building has one. And most of those do nothing more than bake in the summer sun and freeze in the icy winters. Sure, rooftops serve a basic function — to keep the elements from raining down upon a building’s inhabitants and to help maintain the structural integrity of the edifice — but what if roofs were multifunctional?
Recognizing the unexpected potential of untouched rooftops is how Lisa Goode makes her living. She and her partners (including her husband Chris) are experts at turning unfinished black rooftops into green oases. And though her company, Goode Green, focused on green roof design and installation of the nonedible variety, she and Chris had been growing their own food for four years and were nurturing a growing interest in urban farming.
The timing couldn’t have been better for Ben Flanner, a former E-Trade marketing manager looking to get into the NYC farming scene. Flanner reached out to Goode Greene and they then connected him with Annie Novak, a seasoned farmer and gardener who had worked with the New York Botanical Garden and throughout the green market system. They secured the rooftop in Greenpoint, Brooklyn (the top of Broadway Stages, a stage and lighting company), and Rooftop Farms was just 200,000 pounds of soil away from being born.
The 6,000-square-foot farm — which grew more than 30 different crops in its first season — satisfies Novak’s desire to bring people closer to the source of the food they eat. “Food comes from not only a plant, but a place,” Novak explains. “The food system in America is about packaging, and I’m interested in food that comes from the source with no packaging, where its value is its face value. We’ve lost the sense that good, nutritious food doesn’t have to come in a box. And the more we connect to our food, the more likely we are to become true environmentalists. We’ll understand that food that’s healthy for our bodies is also protecting our watershed and our air.”
Advertise | AdChoices
The foundation of Rooftop Farms (the plural is aspirational) — six inches of lightweight soil made from clay and expanded shale — was hoisted to the roof with cranes and has resulted in some serious produce. “The plants have done really well, and that was a huge surprise considering the shallow soil, windy conditions and full sun,” Novak says. The farm produced a serious bounty, including a variety of salad greens, radishes, zucchini, tomatoes and eggplants, with an emphasis on heirloom varieties that are usually too fragile to be shipped to other locations — a key benefit of eating local. The produce is sold to an internal farm (“it’s great when you see where things are grown,” Novak says) as well as to a handful of local Brooklyn restaurants. The winter lineup includes kale as well as mini pumpkins and small squash — the diminutive versions are chosen because Flanner makes all of the farm’s deliveries by bicycle. Video: Growing a fall veggie garden
Added benefits
Rooftop farming brings urbanites closer to the food they eat and, when executed correctly, it can also address some of a city’s most pressing eco-challenges. “I had never done a project on a roof and the idea really excited me,” says Novak. “It’s a whole new angle on environmentalism.”
This new approach to tackling eco-issues has already proven effective in two key areas: decreasing storm water runoff and reducing cooling costs. Rooftop farms and other green roofs help to reduce combined sewer overflow, or CSO, which is water pollution that occurs after soggy weather like big rainfalls or snowmelts.
According to Storm Water Infrastructure Matters (S.W.I.M.), a coalition dedicated to ensuring sustainable storm water management throughout New York City, each year 27 billion gallons of wastewater is dumped into area creeks, rivers and bays during wet weather — including 2 billion gallons of raw, untreated sewage. “One of the main benefits of green roofs is that it captures storm water,” Goode explains. “The six inches of soil takes in two inches of rainfall — with this one building we’re almost stopping all the rainwater that would run off it.”
And though uninitiated building owners may be wary of allowing hundreds of thousands of pounds of soil to settle on their roofs, they will find that the personal benefits of a rooftop farm transcend fresh produce (which is already a pretty fabulous perk). In addition to decreasing CSO, the farms can also help lower cooling costs. “The captured water cools buildings by creating a blanket of moisture,” Goode explains. “Heat rises and then the water evaporates, which in turn feeds the plants.” Rooftop Farms has real plans for the future. Novak and Flanner, along with Goode Green, hope to realize the “s” at the end of Farms, but meanwhile they’re focusing on what Goode calls “the educational aspect of teaching people to farm.” Currently, Novak and Flanner host numerous volunteers at the farm and offer free workshops. Thirty people showed up for the course on how to pot a plant, says Goode. And while it’s tempting to slot rooftop farming into the ever-expanding bag of urban trends, the minds — and hands — behind the farm are anything but fleeting. “I don’t see rooftop farms as a fad,” Novak says. “It’s something I’m very interested in establishing as a permanent movement in New York City.”
For more on Rooftop Farms visit, RooftopFarms.org.

留言

這個網誌中的熱門文章

蔬菜對溫度日照條件的要求

蔬菜對溫度日照條件的要求
全日照  8個小時日照 瓜類、茄果類、豆類、山藥、豆薯(地瓜)。番茄、黃瓜、茄子、辣椒等喜溫中、強光性
蔬菜夏秋季生產,玉米、青椒、西瓜、南瓜、西紅柿、茄子、芝麻、向日葵類。
其次是根莖類,如:馬鈴薯、甜菜、胡蘿蔔、白蘿蔔、甘藷、山藥等等。至少需半日照,才能生長,芋頭雖喜歡全日照,但比其他蔬菜耐蔭。 
需要中等光照大白菜、甘藍、芥菜、蒜、洋蔥。 

長日性蔬菜白菜、甘藍、芥菜、蘿蔔、胡蘿蔔、芹菜、菠菜、萵苣、蠶豆、豌豆、大蔥、洋蔥。

短日性蔬菜豇豆、扁豆、莧菜、空心菜。         

中光性蔬菜黃瓜、番茄、茄子、辣椒、菜豆

菜豆

菜豆喜溫暖,不耐高溫和霜凍。菜豆種子發芽的適溫為20-30℃;在40℃以上的高溫和10℃以下的低溫,種子不易發芽。幼苗生長適宜氣溫為18-25℃。花芽分化的適宜氣溫為20-25℃,過高或過低溫度易出現發育不完全的花蕾、落花。

菜豆對光照強度的要求較高。在適宜溫度條件下,光照充足則植株生長健壯,莖的節間短而分枝多,開花結莢比較多,而且有利於根部對磷肥的吸收。當光照強度減弱時,植株易徒長,莖的節間長,分枝少,葉質薄,而且開花結莢數少,易落花落莢。

菜豆根系強大,能耐一定程度乾旱,但喜中度濕潤土壤條件,要求水分供應適中,不耐澇。生長期適宜土壤濕度為田間最大持水量的60%-70%,空氣相對濕度以80%為宜。開花結莢期對水分最敏感,此期土壤乾旱對開花結莢有不良影響,開花數、結莢數及莢內種子數減少。土壤水分過大時,下部葉片黃化,早脫落。空氣濕度過大會引起徒長、結莢不良。

菜豆具有深根性和根瘤菌,對土壤的要求不甚嚴格,但仍以土層深厚肥沃、排水良好的輕砂壤土或粘質壤土為好。土壤過於粘重、低溫、排水和通氣不良則生長不良,炭疽病重。菜豆喜中性至微酸性土壤,適宜的土壤pH為5-7.0,其中以州6.2-6.8最適宜。菜豆最忌連作,生產中應實行2-3年輪作。

菜豆生育過程中,主要吸收鉀和氮較多,還要吸收一定量的磷和鈣,才能良好發育。結莢期吸收磷鉀量較大。磷鉀肥對菜豆植株的生長發育、根瘤菌的發育、花芽分化、開花結莢和種子的發育等均有影響。缺乏磷肥,菜豆嫩莢和種子的品質和產量就會降低。缺鈣,幼葉葉片捲曲,葉緣失綠和生長點死亡。缺硼,則根係不發達,影響根瘤菌固氮,使花和豆莢發育不良。 耐陰半陰(大概3-4小時日照) 應選擇耐陰的蔬菜種植,如萵…

黑檸檬

黑檸檬
Dried lemons are actually limes and are used heavily in Persian Gulf and also Iranian cuisine where they add a strong bitter flavor in addition to sourness. They are made by boiling ripe limes in salt water, and then sun drying until the insides turn black. The outside color varies from tan to black. They are sold whole or ground.

Black Lime is a spice used in Middle Eastern dishes. It is made by boiling fresh lime in salt water and sun drying until the insides turn black. The outside color varies from tan to black. It is sold whole or ground.

黑檸檬實際上是使用萊姆,並且在波斯灣和伊朗料理中被大量使用,除了酸味外,它們還添加了強烈的苦味。它們是利用鹽水煮成熟萊姆,然後曬乾,直到內部變黑。外部顏色從棕褐色變化到黑色。他們可以整顆或切片販售。
黑檸檬是用於中東菜餚的香料。它是通過在鹽水中煮沸新鮮的檸檬並經天然乾燥,直到內部變黑。外觀從棕褐色變成黑色。
USE Black limes are usually used in legume, seafood or meat dishes. They are pierced, peeled or crushed before adding them to the dish. After cooking they become softer and edible. They can also be powdered and added to rice dishes. Powdered black lime is also used as an ingredient in Gulf-…

為何冰箱冷凍室非得是零下18度?

為何冰箱冷凍室非得是零下18度? 不少家庭的冰箱有led面板,可顯示冷藏室和冷凍室溫度。每次看到那個零下18℃,不少人,包括筆者在內就會禁不住提出一個小疑問:為什麼冷凍室溫度非得是零下18℃?最多零下1℃不就結冰了嗎?搞這麼低溫度實在是浪費電呢。

聰明如很多人是這樣推測的

百思不得其解,於是很多人,包括筆者在內就開始推測後面的機制了。冷凍室的零下18℃其實不費電,相反,它是節約電力的一個好措施。為何?

冰箱隔一段時間,內部溫度升高後,它就要啟動壓縮機,嗡嗡嗡的。頻繁啟動壓縮機不僅耗電,冰箱的壽命也會降低,還有就是很吵人。怎麼辦?簡單,先把冷凍室的溫度搞得低低的,比如零下18℃左右。


然後,冷凍室的冷氣往上走,來到冷藏室,如此,就能長時間保持冷藏室的溫度處於0到8℃以內了。

待冷凍室的冷氣散失過多,溫度升高到零下幾度時,再啟動冰箱的壓縮機把溫度再次降到零下18℃,如此,冰箱的啟動次數就變少了。

實際是這樣嗎?很遺憾,不是。

原因之一:不一樣的水

水到零度以下就結冰了,這是絕大多數人的認識。然而仔細一想,這不適用於冰箱的冷凍室。因為冷凍室存放的不是上百升礦泉水,而是各種各樣的食物。

食物中含有大量水這沒錯,但這些水同時含有大量的鹽、糖等物質。就像每1升海水中大約含有35克鹽,所以平均起來,要到零下1.33℃時海水才會結冰。

因此,要想把食物凍結,並不是溫度只要達到水的冰點就可以,得保證足夠低的溫度,食物中的水才能凍結,這很重要,因為食物中只要有液態水存在,這就等於是為各種細菌的繁殖提供了必備條件。

圖為牛肉薄片在不同溫度和不同時間內測得的牛肉中凍結水量的曲線。

當牛肉薄片的溫度為零下4℃時,只有70%的水分被凍結;溫度下降到零下9℃左右時,也還有3%的水分未凍結;即使牛肉薄片的溫度降低到零下18℃時,也不是100%的水分都被凍結住。

原因之二:嗜冷微生物

根據微生物對不同溫度的適應範圍,可將微生物分為三大類,嗜熱菌、嗜溫菌和嗜冷菌。在食物的冷藏和冷凍過程中,我們面對的「敵人」是嗜溫菌和嗜冷菌。

一般來說,能引起食物腐敗和食物致毒的嗜溫菌,在低於3 ℃情況下不產生毒素,當然,個別菌種例外。

而對於嗜冷菌,一般得在零下10 ℃到零下12 ℃時才會停止生長。

有的黴菌甚至要到零下15~零下18 ℃時才會停止生長。

瞧,我們以為,零下幾攝氏度後微生物就被殺死或停止繁殖了,但…