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Milwakee的都會農場養耕共生系統

Urban farms, aquaponics

都市農場,養耕共生
International team recognizes Milwaukee's 'high potential' to improve access to healthy food, revitalize neighbor hoods and create jobs.

密爾瓦基國際研發團隊對養耕共生提出有潛力的評價,尤其是在生產健康食品,振興鄰里關係及創造就業機會部份。
Milwaukee could become more economically viable and help the world feed itself through urban agriculture and aquaponics - water-efficient systems that can transform abandoned factories and vacant lots into urban farms that raise fish and vegetables, a report released Monday says.
研究團隊週一的報告指出-都會養耕的農業節水系統可以利用都市中廢棄的工廠空地在有效率的運作下,減緩世界對糧食的需求。
Milwaukee already has the base investment and model to improve access to healthy food while revitalizing neighborhoods and creating jobs, says the report, which lays out a game plan for the city to take urban food production to the next level.

The report was prepared by an international team from technology and consulting firm IBM, which spent three weeks this summer analyzing the city's prospects around the theme "Smarter Cities Feed Themselves." The team visited Growing Power, a nonprofit urban farm at 5500 W. Silver Spring Drive that pioneered aquaponics, and Sweet Water Organics, a commercial aquaponic farm in an old factory in Bay View. The team also looked at Natural Green Farms, a commercial aquaponic farm in an abandoned, four-story manufacturing building in Racine.

Milwaukee was one of 24 "high-potential" cities around the world chosen by IBM to receive expertise at no cost to improve quality of life in the areas of water, energy, health care, transportation, communication or social services. In each city, the IBM team set out to synchronize and analyze efforts among sectors and agencies, and to compile information for decision makers to help them anticipate - rather than just react to - problems.

Milwaukee has an entrepreneurial history of creating homegrown industries such as mining and manufacturing and has a reputation as a leader in water research, the IBM team noted in its report. Growing food on vacant city lots and developing a food industry around water could be next.

"I'm very optimistic, but my optimism is based on a very pragmatic approach," said Milwaukee Mayor Tom Barrett, who expressed concern about "over-promising."

"The potential is there to create jobs. There's no doubt," the mayor said. "But it will be most sustainable if it's done on an organic basis," without creating an oversupply or false demand, he said.
"This entire movement has been organic, so it's going to grow at the speed at which it can grow itself. I don't want to leave the impression that six months to a year from now, the city will be magically transformed. It's going to be neighborhood by neighborhood."

Food deserts糧食缺口
By 2050, cities will house more than two-thirds of the world's population.
到2050年,城市的人口將佔世界人口的2/3
Many cities, including Milwaukee, have "food deserts," or large areas without traditional grocery stores because poverty is high, and supermarkets choose not to operate there. As a result, residents have less access to affordable fresh fruits and vegetables. Neighborhood corner stores and convenience stores typically don't offer quality fresh produce.

"It's an issue for chronic diseases," said Paul Hunter, associate medical director for the Milwaukee Health Department and an assistant professor of family medicine at the University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health.

"It makes it very difficult for people who already have chronic diseases to follow the recommendations of what they know they should eat when they don't have access," Hunter said.

Creating jobs through urban agriculture could help lift some neighborhoods out of poverty, and that could have a positive effect on public health issues such as infant mortality, he said.

Homegrown initiatives in Milwaukee are filling some of the gaps and are revitalizing neighborhoods while feeding them, said Young Kim, executive director of the Fondy Food Center, 2347 W. Fond du Lac Ave.

One initiative Kim is involved with links corner stores with local vegetable growers.

Another initiative is nutrition advocacy and community gardens nurtured by Walnut Way Conservation Corp., a nonprofit neighborhood organization whose co-founder, Sharon Adams, is featured in an IBM video about Milwaukee's potential in urban farming.

The University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee has a stake in this, too.

UWM Chancellor Mike Lovell noted in the IBM video that the university launched the nation's first graduate School of Freshwater Sciences "because we are located right here along the banks of Lake Michigan, and this gives a real competitive advantage because water is becoming such a scarce resource."

It takes a lot of water to grow food.

But aquaponics is a water-efficient way to produce large quantities of fish and vegetables in tight spaces. Aquaponics is a closed-loop system that simulates a wetland. Plants act as water filters to keep fish healthy, and fish waste acts as a natural fertilizer to help plants grow.

Recommendations
The release of the IBM report coincides with a regional water summit at Discovery World on Monday and Tuesday, hosted by the Milwaukee Water Council.

The IBM team recommends that the city:

Form an Urban Agriculture and Aquaponics Council, based on the successful model of the Milwaukee Water Council. The new council would advance science and business success through sharing of knowledge, innovation and technology by for-profit, nonprofit and public sector stakeholders.
Establish an Aquaponics Innovation Center to help area universities and K-12 schools transfer technology and develop skills. The center also would evaluate new aquaponics technologies and help develop aquaponics businesses by analyzing best practices and economic impact.
Do a market analysis of aquaponics production, supply chain expansion and market opportunity to guide industry expansion.
Expand the city's Office of Environmental Sustainability to advocate urban agriculture and aquaponics.
The mayor said he expects the recommendations to move forward.

While the IBM report projects optimism, it also offers a reality check.

Milwaukee's expertise in manufacturing helped create one of the most highly skilled manufacturing bases in the world, the report says.

Aquaponics, as an innovation in farming, "may not be the largest supplier of jobs," the report says. "However, we have determined that it will become increasingly important to measure jobs throughout the aquaponics supply chain in order to truly understand the impact of an industry."

An aquaponics farm may employ 40 to 50 people, IBM notes. But if the industry can attract other businesses to the area - fish processors, a post-harvesting facility, or centrally located compost facility - there's additional potential for jobs and economic development.

IBM recommends that the city develop policies to encourage aquaponics growth, including low-cost leases of city-owned property and tax incremental financing to help start-ups. Federal grants also may be available, the report says.

"Building upon the maturing models of aquaponics, Milwaukee has the potential to influence the world food supply," IBM concluded.

"That's what we've been saying for quite a few years," said urban farmer Will Allen, CEO and founder of Growing Power, who has been recognized for his work by the MacArthur Foundation and Time magazine, among others.

"Demand for locally produced food far outpaces the production right now," Allen said. As a nation, "I think we could go beyond the less than 1% local food production where we are now, to about 10% in the next five years. That's a $1 billion change."

Will Allen courts Walmart
Consider the Growing Power model.

The nonprofit farm has about 100 employees, including 70 full time. Allen plans to add 150 more employees in the next three years.

Growing Power produces vegetables on 20 farms and in 50 year-round hoop houses. Those vegetables end up in about 100,000 households in southeastern Wisconsin at least occasionally, including 10,000 households served by the main farm on W. Silver Spring Drive, Allen said.

Last year, Growing Power fed healthy afternoon snacks - sunflower sprouts and pea shoots - to 25,000 students in Milwaukee Public Schools, delivered by Sysco, Allen said.

Sysco also delivers Growing Power vegetables such as peppers and tomatoesto several other school districts in southeastern Wisconsin.

Growing Power is looking for more land on Milwaukee's south side and hopes to gain access to the yards of abandoned MPS schools to expand hoop house production year-round, Allen said.

The nonprofit farm collects 80,000 pounds of food waste each week from 22 Walmart stores in southeastern Wisconsin to compost it and create rich soil for growing more food.

Allen now has his sights set on Walmart's produce sections.

"My goal is to get our food into a specially 'locally grown' section of Walmart stores in southeastern Wisconsin," the urban farmer said.

The Walmart Foundation earlier this month announced a $1.01 million grant to Growing Power to help provide staff training and other support for 20 community food centers in more than 15 states.
2011/9/19, from Jounal Sentinel外電

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蔬菜對溫度日照條件的要求

蔬菜對溫度日照條件的要求
全日照  8個小時日照 瓜類、茄果類、豆類、山藥、豆薯(地瓜)。番茄、黃瓜、茄子、辣椒等喜溫中、強光性
蔬菜夏秋季生產,玉米、青椒、西瓜、南瓜、西紅柿、茄子、芝麻、向日葵類。
其次是根莖類,如:馬鈴薯、甜菜、胡蘿蔔、白蘿蔔、甘藷、山藥等等。至少需半日照,才能生長,芋頭雖喜歡全日照,但比其他蔬菜耐蔭。 
需要中等光照大白菜、甘藍、芥菜、蒜、洋蔥。 

長日性蔬菜白菜、甘藍、芥菜、蘿蔔、胡蘿蔔、芹菜、菠菜、萵苣、蠶豆、豌豆、大蔥、洋蔥。

短日性蔬菜豇豆、扁豆、莧菜、空心菜。         

中光性蔬菜黃瓜、番茄、茄子、辣椒、菜豆

菜豆

菜豆喜溫暖,不耐高溫和霜凍。菜豆種子發芽的適溫為20-30℃;在40℃以上的高溫和10℃以下的低溫,種子不易發芽。幼苗生長適宜氣溫為18-25℃。花芽分化的適宜氣溫為20-25℃,過高或過低溫度易出現發育不完全的花蕾、落花。

菜豆對光照強度的要求較高。在適宜溫度條件下,光照充足則植株生長健壯,莖的節間短而分枝多,開花結莢比較多,而且有利於根部對磷肥的吸收。當光照強度減弱時,植株易徒長,莖的節間長,分枝少,葉質薄,而且開花結莢數少,易落花落莢。

菜豆根系強大,能耐一定程度乾旱,但喜中度濕潤土壤條件,要求水分供應適中,不耐澇。生長期適宜土壤濕度為田間最大持水量的60%-70%,空氣相對濕度以80%為宜。開花結莢期對水分最敏感,此期土壤乾旱對開花結莢有不良影響,開花數、結莢數及莢內種子數減少。土壤水分過大時,下部葉片黃化,早脫落。空氣濕度過大會引起徒長、結莢不良。

菜豆具有深根性和根瘤菌,對土壤的要求不甚嚴格,但仍以土層深厚肥沃、排水良好的輕砂壤土或粘質壤土為好。土壤過於粘重、低溫、排水和通氣不良則生長不良,炭疽病重。菜豆喜中性至微酸性土壤,適宜的土壤pH為5-7.0,其中以州6.2-6.8最適宜。菜豆最忌連作,生產中應實行2-3年輪作。

菜豆生育過程中,主要吸收鉀和氮較多,還要吸收一定量的磷和鈣,才能良好發育。結莢期吸收磷鉀量較大。磷鉀肥對菜豆植株的生長發育、根瘤菌的發育、花芽分化、開花結莢和種子的發育等均有影響。缺乏磷肥,菜豆嫩莢和種子的品質和產量就會降低。缺鈣,幼葉葉片捲曲,葉緣失綠和生長點死亡。缺硼,則根係不發達,影響根瘤菌固氮,使花和豆莢發育不良。 耐陰半陰(大概3-4小時日照) 應選擇耐陰的蔬菜種植,如萵…

黑檸檬

黑檸檬
Dried lemons are actually limes and are used heavily in Persian Gulf and also Iranian cuisine where they add a strong bitter flavor in addition to sourness. They are made by boiling ripe limes in salt water, and then sun drying until the insides turn black. The outside color varies from tan to black. They are sold whole or ground.

Black Lime is a spice used in Middle Eastern dishes. It is made by boiling fresh lime in salt water and sun drying until the insides turn black. The outside color varies from tan to black. It is sold whole or ground.

黑檸檬實際上是使用萊姆,並且在波斯灣和伊朗料理中被大量使用,除了酸味外,它們還添加了強烈的苦味。它們是利用鹽水煮成熟萊姆,然後曬乾,直到內部變黑。外部顏色從棕褐色變化到黑色。他們可以整顆或切片販售。
黑檸檬是用於中東菜餚的香料。它是通過在鹽水中煮沸新鮮的檸檬並經天然乾燥,直到內部變黑。外觀從棕褐色變成黑色。
USE Black limes are usually used in legume, seafood or meat dishes. They are pierced, peeled or crushed before adding them to the dish. After cooking they become softer and edible. They can also be powdered and added to rice dishes. Powdered black lime is also used as an ingredient in Gulf-…

為何冰箱冷凍室非得是零下18度?

為何冰箱冷凍室非得是零下18度? 不少家庭的冰箱有led面板,可顯示冷藏室和冷凍室溫度。每次看到那個零下18℃,不少人,包括筆者在內就會禁不住提出一個小疑問:為什麼冷凍室溫度非得是零下18℃?最多零下1℃不就結冰了嗎?搞這麼低溫度實在是浪費電呢。

聰明如很多人是這樣推測的

百思不得其解,於是很多人,包括筆者在內就開始推測後面的機制了。冷凍室的零下18℃其實不費電,相反,它是節約電力的一個好措施。為何?

冰箱隔一段時間,內部溫度升高後,它就要啟動壓縮機,嗡嗡嗡的。頻繁啟動壓縮機不僅耗電,冰箱的壽命也會降低,還有就是很吵人。怎麼辦?簡單,先把冷凍室的溫度搞得低低的,比如零下18℃左右。


然後,冷凍室的冷氣往上走,來到冷藏室,如此,就能長時間保持冷藏室的溫度處於0到8℃以內了。

待冷凍室的冷氣散失過多,溫度升高到零下幾度時,再啟動冰箱的壓縮機把溫度再次降到零下18℃,如此,冰箱的啟動次數就變少了。

實際是這樣嗎?很遺憾,不是。

原因之一:不一樣的水

水到零度以下就結冰了,這是絕大多數人的認識。然而仔細一想,這不適用於冰箱的冷凍室。因為冷凍室存放的不是上百升礦泉水,而是各種各樣的食物。

食物中含有大量水這沒錯,但這些水同時含有大量的鹽、糖等物質。就像每1升海水中大約含有35克鹽,所以平均起來,要到零下1.33℃時海水才會結冰。

因此,要想把食物凍結,並不是溫度只要達到水的冰點就可以,得保證足夠低的溫度,食物中的水才能凍結,這很重要,因為食物中只要有液態水存在,這就等於是為各種細菌的繁殖提供了必備條件。

圖為牛肉薄片在不同溫度和不同時間內測得的牛肉中凍結水量的曲線。

當牛肉薄片的溫度為零下4℃時,只有70%的水分被凍結;溫度下降到零下9℃左右時,也還有3%的水分未凍結;即使牛肉薄片的溫度降低到零下18℃時,也不是100%的水分都被凍結住。

原因之二:嗜冷微生物

根據微生物對不同溫度的適應範圍,可將微生物分為三大類,嗜熱菌、嗜溫菌和嗜冷菌。在食物的冷藏和冷凍過程中,我們面對的「敵人」是嗜溫菌和嗜冷菌。

一般來說,能引起食物腐敗和食物致毒的嗜溫菌,在低於3 ℃情況下不產生毒素,當然,個別菌種例外。

而對於嗜冷菌,一般得在零下10 ℃到零下12 ℃時才會停止生長。

有的黴菌甚至要到零下15~零下18 ℃時才會停止生長。

瞧,我們以為,零下幾攝氏度後微生物就被殺死或停止繁殖了,但…