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Milwakee的都會農場養耕共生系統

Urban farms, aquaponics

都市農場,養耕共生
International team recognizes Milwaukee's 'high potential' to improve access to healthy food, revitalize neighbor hoods and create jobs.

密爾瓦基國際研發團隊對養耕共生提出有潛力的評價,尤其是在生產健康食品,振興鄰里關係及創造就業機會部份。
Milwaukee could become more economically viable and help the world feed itself through urban agriculture and aquaponics - water-efficient systems that can transform abandoned factories and vacant lots into urban farms that raise fish and vegetables, a report released Monday says.
研究團隊週一的報告指出-都會養耕的農業節水系統可以利用都市中廢棄的工廠空地在有效率的運作下,減緩世界對糧食的需求。
Milwaukee already has the base investment and model to improve access to healthy food while revitalizing neighborhoods and creating jobs, says the report, which lays out a game plan for the city to take urban food production to the next level.

The report was prepared by an international team from technology and consulting firm IBM, which spent three weeks this summer analyzing the city's prospects around the theme "Smarter Cities Feed Themselves." The team visited Growing Power, a nonprofit urban farm at 5500 W. Silver Spring Drive that pioneered aquaponics, and Sweet Water Organics, a commercial aquaponic farm in an old factory in Bay View. The team also looked at Natural Green Farms, a commercial aquaponic farm in an abandoned, four-story manufacturing building in Racine.

Milwaukee was one of 24 "high-potential" cities around the world chosen by IBM to receive expertise at no cost to improve quality of life in the areas of water, energy, health care, transportation, communication or social services. In each city, the IBM team set out to synchronize and analyze efforts among sectors and agencies, and to compile information for decision makers to help them anticipate - rather than just react to - problems.

Milwaukee has an entrepreneurial history of creating homegrown industries such as mining and manufacturing and has a reputation as a leader in water research, the IBM team noted in its report. Growing food on vacant city lots and developing a food industry around water could be next.

"I'm very optimistic, but my optimism is based on a very pragmatic approach," said Milwaukee Mayor Tom Barrett, who expressed concern about "over-promising."

"The potential is there to create jobs. There's no doubt," the mayor said. "But it will be most sustainable if it's done on an organic basis," without creating an oversupply or false demand, he said.
"This entire movement has been organic, so it's going to grow at the speed at which it can grow itself. I don't want to leave the impression that six months to a year from now, the city will be magically transformed. It's going to be neighborhood by neighborhood."

Food deserts糧食缺口
By 2050, cities will house more than two-thirds of the world's population.
到2050年,城市的人口將佔世界人口的2/3
Many cities, including Milwaukee, have "food deserts," or large areas without traditional grocery stores because poverty is high, and supermarkets choose not to operate there. As a result, residents have less access to affordable fresh fruits and vegetables. Neighborhood corner stores and convenience stores typically don't offer quality fresh produce.

"It's an issue for chronic diseases," said Paul Hunter, associate medical director for the Milwaukee Health Department and an assistant professor of family medicine at the University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health.

"It makes it very difficult for people who already have chronic diseases to follow the recommendations of what they know they should eat when they don't have access," Hunter said.

Creating jobs through urban agriculture could help lift some neighborhoods out of poverty, and that could have a positive effect on public health issues such as infant mortality, he said.

Homegrown initiatives in Milwaukee are filling some of the gaps and are revitalizing neighborhoods while feeding them, said Young Kim, executive director of the Fondy Food Center, 2347 W. Fond du Lac Ave.

One initiative Kim is involved with links corner stores with local vegetable growers.

Another initiative is nutrition advocacy and community gardens nurtured by Walnut Way Conservation Corp., a nonprofit neighborhood organization whose co-founder, Sharon Adams, is featured in an IBM video about Milwaukee's potential in urban farming.

The University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee has a stake in this, too.

UWM Chancellor Mike Lovell noted in the IBM video that the university launched the nation's first graduate School of Freshwater Sciences "because we are located right here along the banks of Lake Michigan, and this gives a real competitive advantage because water is becoming such a scarce resource."

It takes a lot of water to grow food.

But aquaponics is a water-efficient way to produce large quantities of fish and vegetables in tight spaces. Aquaponics is a closed-loop system that simulates a wetland. Plants act as water filters to keep fish healthy, and fish waste acts as a natural fertilizer to help plants grow.

Recommendations
The release of the IBM report coincides with a regional water summit at Discovery World on Monday and Tuesday, hosted by the Milwaukee Water Council.

The IBM team recommends that the city:

Form an Urban Agriculture and Aquaponics Council, based on the successful model of the Milwaukee Water Council. The new council would advance science and business success through sharing of knowledge, innovation and technology by for-profit, nonprofit and public sector stakeholders.
Establish an Aquaponics Innovation Center to help area universities and K-12 schools transfer technology and develop skills. The center also would evaluate new aquaponics technologies and help develop aquaponics businesses by analyzing best practices and economic impact.
Do a market analysis of aquaponics production, supply chain expansion and market opportunity to guide industry expansion.
Expand the city's Office of Environmental Sustainability to advocate urban agriculture and aquaponics.
The mayor said he expects the recommendations to move forward.

While the IBM report projects optimism, it also offers a reality check.

Milwaukee's expertise in manufacturing helped create one of the most highly skilled manufacturing bases in the world, the report says.

Aquaponics, as an innovation in farming, "may not be the largest supplier of jobs," the report says. "However, we have determined that it will become increasingly important to measure jobs throughout the aquaponics supply chain in order to truly understand the impact of an industry."

An aquaponics farm may employ 40 to 50 people, IBM notes. But if the industry can attract other businesses to the area - fish processors, a post-harvesting facility, or centrally located compost facility - there's additional potential for jobs and economic development.

IBM recommends that the city develop policies to encourage aquaponics growth, including low-cost leases of city-owned property and tax incremental financing to help start-ups. Federal grants also may be available, the report says.

"Building upon the maturing models of aquaponics, Milwaukee has the potential to influence the world food supply," IBM concluded.

"That's what we've been saying for quite a few years," said urban farmer Will Allen, CEO and founder of Growing Power, who has been recognized for his work by the MacArthur Foundation and Time magazine, among others.

"Demand for locally produced food far outpaces the production right now," Allen said. As a nation, "I think we could go beyond the less than 1% local food production where we are now, to about 10% in the next five years. That's a $1 billion change."

Will Allen courts Walmart
Consider the Growing Power model.

The nonprofit farm has about 100 employees, including 70 full time. Allen plans to add 150 more employees in the next three years.

Growing Power produces vegetables on 20 farms and in 50 year-round hoop houses. Those vegetables end up in about 100,000 households in southeastern Wisconsin at least occasionally, including 10,000 households served by the main farm on W. Silver Spring Drive, Allen said.

Last year, Growing Power fed healthy afternoon snacks - sunflower sprouts and pea shoots - to 25,000 students in Milwaukee Public Schools, delivered by Sysco, Allen said.

Sysco also delivers Growing Power vegetables such as peppers and tomatoesto several other school districts in southeastern Wisconsin.

Growing Power is looking for more land on Milwaukee's south side and hopes to gain access to the yards of abandoned MPS schools to expand hoop house production year-round, Allen said.

The nonprofit farm collects 80,000 pounds of food waste each week from 22 Walmart stores in southeastern Wisconsin to compost it and create rich soil for growing more food.

Allen now has his sights set on Walmart's produce sections.

"My goal is to get our food into a specially 'locally grown' section of Walmart stores in southeastern Wisconsin," the urban farmer said.

The Walmart Foundation earlier this month announced a $1.01 million grant to Growing Power to help provide staff training and other support for 20 community food centers in more than 15 states.
2011/9/19, from Jounal Sentinel外電

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蔬菜對溫度日照條件的要求

蔬菜對溫度日照條件的要求
全日照  8個小時日照 瓜類、茄果類、豆類、山藥、豆薯(地瓜)。番茄、黃瓜、茄子、辣椒等喜溫中、強光性
蔬菜夏秋季生產,玉米、青椒、西瓜、南瓜、西紅柿、茄子、芝麻、向日葵類。
其次是根莖類,如:馬鈴薯、甜菜、胡蘿蔔、白蘿蔔、甘藷、山藥等等。至少需半日照,才能生長,芋頭雖喜歡全日照,但比其他蔬菜耐蔭。 
需要中等光照大白菜、甘藍、芥菜、蒜、洋蔥。 

長日性蔬菜白菜、甘藍、芥菜、蘿蔔、胡蘿蔔、芹菜、菠菜、萵苣、蠶豆、豌豆、大蔥、洋蔥。

短日性蔬菜豇豆、扁豆、莧菜、空心菜。         

中光性蔬菜黃瓜、番茄、茄子、辣椒、菜豆

菜豆

菜豆喜溫暖,不耐高溫和霜凍。菜豆種子發芽的適溫為20-30℃;在40℃以上的高溫和10℃以下的低溫,種子不易發芽。幼苗生長適宜氣溫為18-25℃。花芽分化的適宜氣溫為20-25℃,過高或過低溫度易出現發育不完全的花蕾、落花。

菜豆對光照強度的要求較高。在適宜溫度條件下,光照充足則植株生長健壯,莖的節間短而分枝多,開花結莢比較多,而且有利於根部對磷肥的吸收。當光照強度減弱時,植株易徒長,莖的節間長,分枝少,葉質薄,而且開花結莢數少,易落花落莢。

菜豆根系強大,能耐一定程度乾旱,但喜中度濕潤土壤條件,要求水分供應適中,不耐澇。生長期適宜土壤濕度為田間最大持水量的60%-70%,空氣相對濕度以80%為宜。開花結莢期對水分最敏感,此期土壤乾旱對開花結莢有不良影響,開花數、結莢數及莢內種子數減少。土壤水分過大時,下部葉片黃化,早脫落。空氣濕度過大會引起徒長、結莢不良。

菜豆具有深根性和根瘤菌,對土壤的要求不甚嚴格,但仍以土層深厚肥沃、排水良好的輕砂壤土或粘質壤土為好。土壤過於粘重、低溫、排水和通氣不良則生長不良,炭疽病重。菜豆喜中性至微酸性土壤,適宜的土壤pH為5-7.0,其中以州6.2-6.8最適宜。菜豆最忌連作,生產中應實行2-3年輪作。

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蝶豆花

蝶豆花 原產拉丁美洲的蝶豆花是一種典型的熱帶蔓藤植物,全年盛開。
butterfly pea,拉丁語叫:Clitoria ternatea,泰語叫Dok Anchan
中文名叫蝶豆花,藍蝶花,藍蝴蝶、蝴蝶藍花,還有蝴羊豆、豆碧等別名。
用蝶豆花當作高品位浪漫的茶品飲用、以及當作天然食品色素制作糕點是拉丁美洲和南洋國家的風情和習俗。
蝶豆花的味道自然甘甜,南洋國家的一些五星級酒店通常把蝶豆花茶當作高貴的迎賓茶來接待貴賓。
營養價值 蝶豆花具有豐富的維他命A,C和E, 而且可以提高免疫力, 幫助和促進皮膚的彈力和骨膠原, 同時還具有補腦,促進腦的活力,防止胃痛,抗憂郁、抗壓力、鎮靜、止驚厥、緩和情緒等天然保健功效。
蝶豆花中的天然藍色素,也是有療效的。如果將其加入檸檬並調制成花茶飲品,就是保健心臟血管的絕佳飲料。
食用價值 蝶豆花的可食部位是葉、花及嫩莢。較幼嫩的葉片及盛開的花朵,亦可拿來煮湯、油炸等。用嫩芽來炒肉絲或煮熟後食用,都十分可口。蝶豆花的葉及花的萃取液,可當作純天然的食品染料。

直達香草(herb4kitchen)
PS.營業用批量報價

錦鯉養殖基本知識

◎飼養與管理的重點 只要不是劇烈的變化,錦鯉很容易適應各水溫水質等環境的變化。並不是沒有大庭園就無法飼養,有人甚至在二樓陽台或頂樓陽台造水池飼養。然而我們是欣賞錦鯉雄壯豪邁之氣,因此水池盡量寬闊為宜,以水深1.2m以上為理想。魚池必須有底水排出,過濾循環等設備。用水不一定要取地下水,自來水也可以飼養。
<因為都市中有景觀安全的需求,及屋頂花園有荷重的需求,錦鯉池水深可以低到30cm左右。>
◎每天排水
A、糞或枯死的藻類全部送至過濾槽的話,耗氧量會增大,pH就下降,更會轉變為亞硝酸,增了過濾槽的負擔。為了盡量減輕過濾槽的負擔,每天至少把魚池的底水排水使固物排出去,把中間水送去沉澱槽及過濾槽。 
B、把固體廢物的魚糞集中排出,最好不要從池底打氣而是從排糞口的上方40~50公分打打氣。如此氣泡往上昇。池水產生對流。污物就集中於排糞口。
<可以設計水流把固體廢物盡量集中或排出到過濾系統中。>
◎過濾槽管理
A、細菌附著於濾材,分解固體廢物會消耗大量的氧。 
B、溶氧不足時,厭氧菌會把硝酸還原亞硝酸,或從碳酸氣發生沼氣,也會從硫酸分解產生硫化氫等有毒氣體。
<如果溶氧不足,可以優先把打氣設備放置到生化過濾槽中。>
◎溶氧要充份
A、水中溶氧不足的話,會影響錦鯉的生育,飼料的消化,,水質的維持等等。
B、硝酸,亞硝酸的濃度增高時,會影響溶氧量。所以優先去除硝酸及亞硝酸。
C、使用沸石可輕易去除硝酸,沸石量約等重於魚體總重量。
<沸石再生法,是將沸石浸泡25℃以上1:10食鹽水數小時,再以清水洗淨即可。>
◎水質的控制
水質硬度高的話,錦鯉肌膚經常會有少許充血的狀態。豔麗性也會慢慢消失,紅緋會上升。pH值低,肌膚變的很不好看,但是雖餵增色飼料,依然不見起色,徒增浪費。pH值7.1~7.5最適宜的。
◎鯉餌的重要性
良好的魚餌不會崩壞鯉的體型。餌的量也是在夏天水溫 高的時候,訂定停餌期間,才是整體來說使鯉變胖最重要的秘訣。如果還是想 要給很多餌的話,要增加循還量。錦鯉在水溫超過28度的時候,應給與相當於 鯉全體重量3%的餌。水溫25度時1.5%,水溫20度時0.3%,16度以下則要停止鯉餌,這就是鯉魚長得強壯的要訣。連續不斷地給鯉餌的話,引起內臟障礙, 而影響到鯉不會長壯,甚至導至體型的變歪。
◎魚病預防
水的管理與定期消毒都是很重要的步驟,…