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養耕共生澳洲電台專訪

Aquaponics an answer to Pacific's food security
Updated October 12, 2011 11:07:35
養耕共生是太平洋環帶地區的食物危機的最佳解決方案
The chronic water shortage in Tuvalu, Tokelau and the Samoas is raising concerns that some islands may face widespread crop failures. But marine and aquaculture researchers say there is a way to tackle the food and water crises. Aquaculture specialists in American Samoa say the use of aquaponics to grow fruit and vegetables could lead the way to future food security.

主持人: Geraldine Coutts
主講者: Ephraim Temple, the Sea Grant program coordinator at American Samoa's Community College

TEMPLE: Aquaponics is where you grow fish and plants in the same water, so as you feed the fish, they produce waste and the waste is used by the plants as fertiliser, so the water is recycled over and over to raise both fish and plant crops.

COUTTS: Even though it's efficient and economic when it comes to the use of water and the amount of water. Isn't this also too much water what given the crisis that's happening in a number of the nations at the moment?

TEMPLE: If you look at the literature for the amount of water that's required by traditional farming in soils, compared with the amount of water used for producing crops and aquaponics, you find that's about ten times less water usage in aquaponics. And so one could argue that it does use water conservatively and less than growing in traditional farming. So places that have little water, this is actually an ideal way to produce crops, because your recycling the water over and over. So may be initially to fill your tanks, then you do need as much water as your tank sizes are, but after that, then it requires very little to maintain the system.

COUTTS: And what about sort of bugs in the water and pollution, does that need to be filtered out so it doesn't devastate the crops that your trying to grow?

TEMPLE: In traditional aquaculture, where you have either ponds or tanks and you're raising higher quantities of fish. You have to deal with effluent that is full of nitrogen and that can be a problem. The beauty of aquaponics is the waste that's coming from the fish is actually taken up by the plants in that same system and so you have little to no run off to begin with, because the waters recycled and any run off that you do have has very low pollution in it as far as excess nutrients. So that's really the beauty of the system.

COUTTS: Well, your colleagues, the American Samoa Community College in partnership with the University of Hawaii will be hosting a workshop next week on building aquaponics capacity. How can you build the capacity, is it just having more tanks right throughout the region?

TEMPLE: Sure, that's one way. Another way is just giving people options. If they know that this is something available to them, that you can raise crops this way, then more people will be willing to go there. People often think that farming isn't for them, that their land is to full of sand or coral or to uneven, but aquaponics opens the door to growing, for people to have gardens in their backyards where those conditions are present. So I think if that is an option to them and they're understanding it, they will adopt that type of farming and start raising their own crops. That then improves their food security as well as conserves their water - producing this food that they're raising themselves.

COUTTS: Because no soil is required?

TEMPLE: That's right, that's right. So on many of these low lying atolls, the soil is poor to begin with, and most of the food is raised in the inner most part of the atoll, where they've kind of made a soil. But in this with aquaponics, people living right along the shore, they can build a small farm and they don't need soil at all.

COUTTS: Alright, to what extent could the food security be boosted using this method, aquaponics?

TEMPLE: That's a tricky question. I don't know if the economics of that have been analysed closely. But if every family were to establish their own aquaponic system, just on a small footprint of may be 30 square feet, you could produce all your plant food for your family. So that's really a small footprint and then you're relying solely on yourself to produce your food. Then you'd have to look elsewhere for your proteins, but at the same time, you know that you're raising fish in your systems as well. So as long as you're harvesting fish and plants, you're basic nutrition is covered. If you need specialty items, then that would have to come off island.

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全日照  8個小時日照 瓜類、茄果類、豆類、山藥、豆薯(地瓜)。番茄、黃瓜、茄子、辣椒等喜溫中、強光性
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其次是根莖類,如:馬鈴薯、甜菜、胡蘿蔔、白蘿蔔、甘藷、山藥等等。至少需半日照,才能生長,芋頭雖喜歡全日照,但比其他蔬菜耐蔭。 
需要中等光照大白菜、甘藍、芥菜、蒜、洋蔥。 

長日性蔬菜白菜、甘藍、芥菜、蘿蔔、胡蘿蔔、芹菜、菠菜、萵苣、蠶豆、豌豆、大蔥、洋蔥。

短日性蔬菜豇豆、扁豆、莧菜、空心菜。         

中光性蔬菜黃瓜、番茄、茄子、辣椒、菜豆

菜豆

菜豆喜溫暖,不耐高溫和霜凍。菜豆種子發芽的適溫為20-30℃;在40℃以上的高溫和10℃以下的低溫,種子不易發芽。幼苗生長適宜氣溫為18-25℃。花芽分化的適宜氣溫為20-25℃,過高或過低溫度易出現發育不完全的花蕾、落花。

菜豆對光照強度的要求較高。在適宜溫度條件下,光照充足則植株生長健壯,莖的節間短而分枝多,開花結莢比較多,而且有利於根部對磷肥的吸收。當光照強度減弱時,植株易徒長,莖的節間長,分枝少,葉質薄,而且開花結莢數少,易落花落莢。

菜豆根系強大,能耐一定程度乾旱,但喜中度濕潤土壤條件,要求水分供應適中,不耐澇。生長期適宜土壤濕度為田間最大持水量的60%-70%,空氣相對濕度以80%為宜。開花結莢期對水分最敏感,此期土壤乾旱對開花結莢有不良影響,開花數、結莢數及莢內種子數減少。土壤水分過大時,下部葉片黃化,早脫落。空氣濕度過大會引起徒長、結莢不良。

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蝶豆花

蝶豆花 原產拉丁美洲的蝶豆花是一種典型的熱帶蔓藤植物,全年盛開。
butterfly pea,拉丁語叫:Clitoria ternatea,泰語叫Dok Anchan
中文名叫蝶豆花,藍蝶花,藍蝴蝶、蝴蝶藍花,還有蝴羊豆、豆碧等別名。
用蝶豆花當作高品位浪漫的茶品飲用、以及當作天然食品色素制作糕點是拉丁美洲和南洋國家的風情和習俗。
蝶豆花的味道自然甘甜,南洋國家的一些五星級酒店通常把蝶豆花茶當作高貴的迎賓茶來接待貴賓。
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蝶豆花中的天然藍色素,也是有療效的。如果將其加入檸檬並調制成花茶飲品,就是保健心臟血管的絕佳飲料。
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直達香草(herb4kitchen)
PS.營業用批量報價

錦鯉養殖基本知識

◎飼養與管理的重點 只要不是劇烈的變化,錦鯉很容易適應各水溫水質等環境的變化。並不是沒有大庭園就無法飼養,有人甚至在二樓陽台或頂樓陽台造水池飼養。然而我們是欣賞錦鯉雄壯豪邁之氣,因此水池盡量寬闊為宜,以水深1.2m以上為理想。魚池必須有底水排出,過濾循環等設備。用水不一定要取地下水,自來水也可以飼養。
<因為都市中有景觀安全的需求,及屋頂花園有荷重的需求,錦鯉池水深可以低到30cm左右。>
◎每天排水
A、糞或枯死的藻類全部送至過濾槽的話,耗氧量會增大,pH就下降,更會轉變為亞硝酸,增了過濾槽的負擔。為了盡量減輕過濾槽的負擔,每天至少把魚池的底水排水使固物排出去,把中間水送去沉澱槽及過濾槽。 
B、把固體廢物的魚糞集中排出,最好不要從池底打氣而是從排糞口的上方40~50公分打打氣。如此氣泡往上昇。池水產生對流。污物就集中於排糞口。
<可以設計水流把固體廢物盡量集中或排出到過濾系統中。>
◎過濾槽管理
A、細菌附著於濾材,分解固體廢物會消耗大量的氧。 
B、溶氧不足時,厭氧菌會把硝酸還原亞硝酸,或從碳酸氣發生沼氣,也會從硫酸分解產生硫化氫等有毒氣體。
<如果溶氧不足,可以優先把打氣設備放置到生化過濾槽中。>
◎溶氧要充份
A、水中溶氧不足的話,會影響錦鯉的生育,飼料的消化,,水質的維持等等。
B、硝酸,亞硝酸的濃度增高時,會影響溶氧量。所以優先去除硝酸及亞硝酸。
C、使用沸石可輕易去除硝酸,沸石量約等重於魚體總重量。
<沸石再生法,是將沸石浸泡25℃以上1:10食鹽水數小時,再以清水洗淨即可。>
◎水質的控制
水質硬度高的話,錦鯉肌膚經常會有少許充血的狀態。豔麗性也會慢慢消失,紅緋會上升。pH值低,肌膚變的很不好看,但是雖餵增色飼料,依然不見起色,徒增浪費。pH值7.1~7.5最適宜的。
◎鯉餌的重要性
良好的魚餌不會崩壞鯉的體型。餌的量也是在夏天水溫 高的時候,訂定停餌期間,才是整體來說使鯉變胖最重要的秘訣。如果還是想 要給很多餌的話,要增加循還量。錦鯉在水溫超過28度的時候,應給與相當於 鯉全體重量3%的餌。水溫25度時1.5%,水溫20度時0.3%,16度以下則要停止鯉餌,這就是鯉魚長得強壯的要訣。連續不斷地給鯉餌的話,引起內臟障礙, 而影響到鯉不會長壯,甚至導至體型的變歪。
◎魚病預防
水的管理與定期消毒都是很重要的步驟,…