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十個最漂亮的綠屋頂-2011

2011 Top 10: The Pinnacle@Duxton2011年十大溫室及綠牆設計
Top 10 hot trends in greenroof & greenwall design
And how ecologically better, in terms of the highest and greatest ecological use of space, than to cover these generally unused fifth façades than with living, breathing, vegetative roofs? Living roofs are true workhorses of the roofing world in that they offer such a wide spectrum of environmental benefits and opportunities for Earth’s flora, fauna, and human communities – all while pleasing our economic, aesthetic, and psychological sensibilities, too.
- 2011 marks the fifth anniversary of the “Top 10 List” and an amazing amount of development has occurred over the past five years in the vegetative roofing industry. Projects that were once scoffed at and considered impossible to get built are popping up all over the globe, and greenroofs are no longer considered fringe architecture, destined to be the first sacrifice to value engineering.
2011 Top 10: GE's living portrait of Van Gogh's "A Wheatfield with Cypresses"Read our September 26, 2011 Press Release Greenroofs.com Premiers the “2011 Top 10 List of Hot Trends in Greenroof & Greenwall Design” at the Inaugural Greenroofs & Walls of the World™ Virtual Summit 2011.
Amidst growing media interest and demand from public and private sectors, multidisciplinary professionals - from architects to environmental engineers, city planners to landscape architects and beyond - are redefining sustainability in the context of building design. We’re examining our environmental impacts on the Earth from a more integrated, holistic approach and using technologies which encourage energy efficient and environmentally friendly building envelopes, including the ubiquitous “fifth façade” – the rooftop.
As such, greenroofs are fast becoming green staples of chic sustainability in mainstream architecture and high performance building with a hip environmental sheen that is attractive to young and old. And we all know that greenroofs are vibrant and exciting alternatives to the average unused, hot, and often downright ugly black tar or concrete roofs that we see covering the world, but what and where are the new and exciting projects on the boards?

2011 Top 10: GE's living portrait of Van Gogh's "A Wheatfield with Cypresses"Enter the Greenroofs.com Top 10 List of Hot Trends in Greenroof & Greenwall Design to showcase the important, newsworthy and exciting greenroof projects from around the world! Our Design Editor Haven Kiers and Publisher/Editor Linda Velazquez inaugurated the series in 2007 at the Greening Rooftops for Sustainable Communities Conference, Awards and Trade Show in Minneapolis, Minnesota. Our Top 10 List is designed to be an eye catching and fast-paced presentation of case study vignettes representing the selected top ten categories highlighting the very best of what's hot now. Whether based on traditional applications with a twist or avant-guard projects combining living roofs, energy, and other green technologies, we select time-honored examples from which we designers can draw inspiration to current conceptual, high-profile media grabbing greenroofs which stimulate the senses!
How do we decide the Top 10 List of Hot Trends in Greenroof & Greenwall Design?

- For our inaugural year in 2007, we explored "chic sustainability" and looked at examples of trailblazing and trendsetting greenroof design based on earlier examples of green architecture. "Visionary Proposed Projects" held the # 1 spot as a result. What makes a project visionary? Innovative solutions to environmental, social, and economic design challenges necessitate a combination of the above trends at various scales with a higher purpose for a higher good. These projects may still have been on the books, but they’re the ones that will define greenroofs for years to come for their ingenuity, productivity and compassion for both the human and built environments.

Jiang Cultural Center- Aside from our own editorial and experiential input, in 2008 we turned to greenroof industry professionals for inspiration and guidance and asked them to share their top 10 trends with us. Together we chose "The Influence of LEED on Design Professionals = Pushing the Green Envelope" for the top spot.
Jiang Cultural Center
- In 2009, the projects we chose all shared a similar concept - the desire to improve their surrounding environment. The focus of the Top 10 Trends of 2009 was on greenroof design as a means to combat problems in our world of the built environment versus nature, and restore sustainability to the eco-system.
Sandton City Shopping Centre, Johannesburg, South Africa
Sandton City Shopping Centre, Johannesburg, South AfricaAlthough environmental drivers have always played a role in greenroof development, until recently they have taken a backseat to the flashier concepts of style and high design. The greenroofs previously garnering the most attention were the ones that skillfully blended vegetation with sleek proportions and transformed buildings into works of art. 2009's selection of greenroof projects still has that "wow" effect, with the exception that now aesthetics have become increasingly subservient to environmental and social functionality. These projects tackle global warming, stormwater run-off, decreased biodiversity, societal responsibility and other ecological issues with a combination of grit and style previously lacking in building design.
Gardens by the Bay, Singapore, by Grant and AssociatesGardens by the Bay, Singapore, by Grant and Associates
- New for 2010 was the addition of "& Greenwall" in the title! Greenwalls have graduated from simply being restrained to their own category within the Top 10 Lists. When fully integrated, sometimes it's hard to separate where the wall starts and where the roof ends, plus greenwalls are increasingly being incorporated into "Building Integrated Greenery" as their own architectural element.

The World Village Womens Sports Arena (WVWSA) in Malmo, by BIG Architects
The World Village Womens Sports Arena (WVWSA) in Malmo, by BIG ArchitectsPublisher Linda said, “The focus of the Top 10 Trends of 2010 illustrates global shifts in thinking about how we can manipulate the built environment through design to lessen its burden on the Earth's climate, energy, and natural resources, and increase the overall productivity of our built structures.”
The WVWSA in Malmo, by BIG Architects
The WVWSA in Malmo, by BIG ArchitectsDesign Editor Haven Kiers added, “We have showcased some simply stunning and important built projects, those that are still on the boards, and several amazing, beyond forward-thinking conceptual designs that hopefully will materialize in the future!”
2011 Top 10: Coral Reef
2011 Top 10: Coral Reef2011 Top 10: GE's living portrait of Van Gogh's "A Wheatfield with Cypresses"

To honor the new ubiquity of architectural greening, this year our Top 10 focuses on greenroofs at all different scales, from micro to macro. As “vegitecture” increasingly becomes a mainstay of both sustainable and cutting edge design, the list of greenroof and greenwall trends continues to expand.

2011 Top 10: The Pinnacle@Duxton
This year we’re showcasing greening at both the micro and the macro scale, from small scale DIY greenroof projects to towering skyscrapers stacked with fruit and vegetable crops, parks, and energy facilities atop sky gardens, walls and bridges.
2011 Hot Trends in GREENROOF & GREENWALL DESIGN
The Greenroofs.com Top 10 List:
10) Client Specific ‘Boutique’ Greenroofs
9) Mobile Gardens & Temporary Green Spaces and Exhibitions
8) Interior Plantings: Indoor Building Integrated Greenery
7) DIY Greenroofs and Living Walls for Small Projects
6) Affordable Greenroofs: Solving Environmental & Social Issues
5) Green + Blue Roofs = Integrated Water Management
4) Over the Top Residential Wonders, or Greenroofs of the Rich & Famous
3) Living Architecture & Cybertecture Fueled by Clean Technology
2) The Chinese Connection: Rise of the Green Giant
1) Skyscraping Sky Gardens on Roofs, Walls & Skybridges

The 2011 Top 10 List of Hot Trends in Greenroof & Greenwall Design Video as presented at the 2011 Greenroofs & Walls of the World™ Virtual Summit:

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蔬菜對溫度日照條件的要求

蔬菜對溫度日照條件的要求
全日照  8個小時日照 瓜類、茄果類、豆類、山藥、豆薯(地瓜)。番茄、黃瓜、茄子、辣椒等喜溫中、強光性
蔬菜夏秋季生產,玉米、青椒、西瓜、南瓜、西紅柿、茄子、芝麻、向日葵類。
其次是根莖類,如:馬鈴薯、甜菜、胡蘿蔔、白蘿蔔、甘藷、山藥等等。至少需半日照,才能生長,芋頭雖喜歡全日照,但比其他蔬菜耐蔭。 
需要中等光照大白菜、甘藍、芥菜、蒜、洋蔥。 

長日性蔬菜白菜、甘藍、芥菜、蘿蔔、胡蘿蔔、芹菜、菠菜、萵苣、蠶豆、豌豆、大蔥、洋蔥。

短日性蔬菜豇豆、扁豆、莧菜、空心菜。         

中光性蔬菜黃瓜、番茄、茄子、辣椒、菜豆

菜豆

菜豆喜溫暖,不耐高溫和霜凍。菜豆種子發芽的適溫為20-30℃;在40℃以上的高溫和10℃以下的低溫,種子不易發芽。幼苗生長適宜氣溫為18-25℃。花芽分化的適宜氣溫為20-25℃,過高或過低溫度易出現發育不完全的花蕾、落花。

菜豆對光照強度的要求較高。在適宜溫度條件下,光照充足則植株生長健壯,莖的節間短而分枝多,開花結莢比較多,而且有利於根部對磷肥的吸收。當光照強度減弱時,植株易徒長,莖的節間長,分枝少,葉質薄,而且開花結莢數少,易落花落莢。

菜豆根系強大,能耐一定程度乾旱,但喜中度濕潤土壤條件,要求水分供應適中,不耐澇。生長期適宜土壤濕度為田間最大持水量的60%-70%,空氣相對濕度以80%為宜。開花結莢期對水分最敏感,此期土壤乾旱對開花結莢有不良影響,開花數、結莢數及莢內種子數減少。土壤水分過大時,下部葉片黃化,早脫落。空氣濕度過大會引起徒長、結莢不良。

菜豆具有深根性和根瘤菌,對土壤的要求不甚嚴格,但仍以土層深厚肥沃、排水良好的輕砂壤土或粘質壤土為好。土壤過於粘重、低溫、排水和通氣不良則生長不良,炭疽病重。菜豆喜中性至微酸性土壤,適宜的土壤pH為5-7.0,其中以州6.2-6.8最適宜。菜豆最忌連作,生產中應實行2-3年輪作。

菜豆生育過程中,主要吸收鉀和氮較多,還要吸收一定量的磷和鈣,才能良好發育。結莢期吸收磷鉀量較大。磷鉀肥對菜豆植株的生長發育、根瘤菌的發育、花芽分化、開花結莢和種子的發育等均有影響。缺乏磷肥,菜豆嫩莢和種子的品質和產量就會降低。缺鈣,幼葉葉片捲曲,葉緣失綠和生長點死亡。缺硼,則根係不發達,影響根瘤菌固氮,使花和豆莢發育不良。 耐陰半陰(大概3-4小時日照) 應選擇耐陰的蔬菜種植,如萵…

蝶豆花

蝶豆花 原產拉丁美洲的蝶豆花是一種典型的熱帶蔓藤植物,全年盛開。
butterfly pea,拉丁語叫:Clitoria ternatea,泰語叫Dok Anchan
中文名叫蝶豆花,藍蝶花,藍蝴蝶、蝴蝶藍花,還有蝴羊豆、豆碧等別名。
用蝶豆花當作高品位浪漫的茶品飲用、以及當作天然食品色素制作糕點是拉丁美洲和南洋國家的風情和習俗。
蝶豆花的味道自然甘甜,南洋國家的一些五星級酒店通常把蝶豆花茶當作高貴的迎賓茶來接待貴賓。
營養價值 蝶豆花具有豐富的維他命A,C和E, 而且可以提高免疫力, 幫助和促進皮膚的彈力和骨膠原, 同時還具有補腦,促進腦的活力,防止胃痛,抗憂郁、抗壓力、鎮靜、止驚厥、緩和情緒等天然保健功效。
蝶豆花中的天然藍色素,也是有療效的。如果將其加入檸檬並調制成花茶飲品,就是保健心臟血管的絕佳飲料。
食用價值 蝶豆花的可食部位是葉、花及嫩莢。較幼嫩的葉片及盛開的花朵,亦可拿來煮湯、油炸等。用嫩芽來炒肉絲或煮熟後食用,都十分可口。蝶豆花的葉及花的萃取液,可當作純天然的食品染料。

直達香草(herb4kitchen)
PS.營業用批量報價

錦鯉養殖基本知識

◎飼養與管理的重點 只要不是劇烈的變化,錦鯉很容易適應各水溫水質等環境的變化。並不是沒有大庭園就無法飼養,有人甚至在二樓陽台或頂樓陽台造水池飼養。然而我們是欣賞錦鯉雄壯豪邁之氣,因此水池盡量寬闊為宜,以水深1.2m以上為理想。魚池必須有底水排出,過濾循環等設備。用水不一定要取地下水,自來水也可以飼養。
<因為都市中有景觀安全的需求,及屋頂花園有荷重的需求,錦鯉池水深可以低到30cm左右。>
◎每天排水
A、糞或枯死的藻類全部送至過濾槽的話,耗氧量會增大,pH就下降,更會轉變為亞硝酸,增了過濾槽的負擔。為了盡量減輕過濾槽的負擔,每天至少把魚池的底水排水使固物排出去,把中間水送去沉澱槽及過濾槽。 
B、把固體廢物的魚糞集中排出,最好不要從池底打氣而是從排糞口的上方40~50公分打打氣。如此氣泡往上昇。池水產生對流。污物就集中於排糞口。
<可以設計水流把固體廢物盡量集中或排出到過濾系統中。>
◎過濾槽管理
A、細菌附著於濾材,分解固體廢物會消耗大量的氧。 
B、溶氧不足時,厭氧菌會把硝酸還原亞硝酸,或從碳酸氣發生沼氣,也會從硫酸分解產生硫化氫等有毒氣體。
<如果溶氧不足,可以優先把打氣設備放置到生化過濾槽中。>
◎溶氧要充份
A、水中溶氧不足的話,會影響錦鯉的生育,飼料的消化,,水質的維持等等。
B、硝酸,亞硝酸的濃度增高時,會影響溶氧量。所以優先去除硝酸及亞硝酸。
C、使用沸石可輕易去除硝酸,沸石量約等重於魚體總重量。
<沸石再生法,是將沸石浸泡25℃以上1:10食鹽水數小時,再以清水洗淨即可。>
◎水質的控制
水質硬度高的話,錦鯉肌膚經常會有少許充血的狀態。豔麗性也會慢慢消失,紅緋會上升。pH值低,肌膚變的很不好看,但是雖餵增色飼料,依然不見起色,徒增浪費。pH值7.1~7.5最適宜的。
◎鯉餌的重要性
良好的魚餌不會崩壞鯉的體型。餌的量也是在夏天水溫 高的時候,訂定停餌期間,才是整體來說使鯉變胖最重要的秘訣。如果還是想 要給很多餌的話,要增加循還量。錦鯉在水溫超過28度的時候,應給與相當於 鯉全體重量3%的餌。水溫25度時1.5%,水溫20度時0.3%,16度以下則要停止鯉餌,這就是鯉魚長得強壯的要訣。連續不斷地給鯉餌的話,引起內臟障礙, 而影響到鯉不會長壯,甚至導至體型的變歪。
◎魚病預防
水的管理與定期消毒都是很重要的步驟,…