Farm of the Future: Aquaponics?
Milwaukee hopes to pioneer new tech advances in farming that would create jobs and eliminate food deserts in depressed neighborhoods.
BY: Steve Towns | December 2011
Can high-tech, water-based farming be an economic springboard for the Milwaukee region? It’s a question that city officials, private businesses, academics and nonprofits hope to answer over the next year or so.

In March, Milwaukee was one of 24 cities worldwide to win a Smarter Cities Challenge Grant from IBM, which provides $500,000 in consulting help to tackle critical quality-of-life issues. This summer, a team from IBM spent several weeks interviewing potential stakeholders in what proponents hope will be a burgeoning “aquaponics” industry that creates jobs and eliminates food deserts in depressed neighborhoods.

Aquaponics combines hydroponics, where plants are cultivated in water instead of soil, and aquaculture, the farming of fish and other marine creatures. It uses a series of tanks and pumps to create a closed loop where fish waste fertilizes the plants and plants purify water for the fish. Until now, aquaponics in the U.S. largely has been the province of hobbyists, but it’s drawing more attention as a sustainable approach to urban agriculture.

“We’ve already shown that individuals can do this in their basement. One issue is can we scale this up,” says Claus Dunkelberg, business development director for the Milwaukee Water Council, a group of local water technology companies, government agencies and academics that was instrumental in acquiring the IBM grant.

Plan supporters envision warehouse-sized aquaponics operations that are equipped with sophisticated sensing devices to boost efficiency, and backed by research that multiplies fish spawning cycles and boosts crop production. These facilities could be housed in vacant buildings in poor neighborhoods, providing jobs and a supply of nutritious, locally produced food for residents. In the bigger picture, proponents want Milwaukee to develop industry leading expertise in technologies, science and distribution techniques that will move aquaponics out of the basement and into large-scale use.

The IBM report makes recommendations aimed in that direction, including creating an urban agriculture and aquaponics council that would assemble interested parties -- like major companies, universities, the city public works and local aquaponics start-ups. The report also proposes launching an aquaponics innovation center to share scientific and technological breakthroughs and serve as an incubator for new companies.

Since the report’s release, there’s been movement toward creating an aquaponics council, Dunkelberg says, but that could take a year or two to coalesce. Ultimately, the Milwaukee Water Council could be a template for the new group, he adds. The 4-year-old council is a hub for water-related research and economic development in the region, assembling related companies, government agencies, educational institutions, nongovernmental organizations and investors under one umbrella.

An aquaponics council needs the same mix, says Dunkelberg. “I call them the five food groups -- and that’s what you need if it’s going to be sustainable.”

Many details must still be worked out, including complex questions about business models and funding. But Dunkelberg says the potential is there, pointing to growing reliance on farm-raised seafood and mounting interest in locally produced food. Few places are better positioned to exploit that trend, he argues, than Milwaukee, with its longstanding expertise in food processing and freshwater research -- not to mention the town’s passion for a good fish dinner.

“I’ve yet to find any region that’s more hung up on fish fry,” Dunkelberg says. “It’s unreal.”




全日照  8個小時日照 瓜類、茄果類、豆類、山藥、豆薯(地瓜)。番茄、黃瓜、茄子、辣椒等喜溫中、強光性









菜豆生育過程中,主要吸收鉀和氮較多,還要吸收一定量的磷和鈣,才能良好發育。結莢期吸收磷鉀量較大。磷鉀肥對菜豆植株的生長發育、根瘤菌的發育、花芽分化、開花結莢和種子的發育等均有影響。缺乏磷肥,菜豆嫩莢和種子的品質和產量就會降低。缺鈣,幼葉葉片捲曲,葉緣失綠和生長點死亡。缺硼,則根係不發達,影響根瘤菌固氮,使花和豆莢發育不良。 耐陰半陰(大概3-4小時日照) 應選擇耐陰的蔬菜種植,如萵…


Dried lemons are actually limes and are used heavily in Persian Gulf and also Iranian cuisine where they add a strong bitter flavor in addition to sourness. They are made by boiling ripe limes in salt water, and then sun drying until the insides turn black. The outside color varies from tan to black. They are sold whole or ground.

Black Lime is a spice used in Middle Eastern dishes. It is made by boiling fresh lime in salt water and sun drying until the insides turn black. The outside color varies from tan to black. It is sold whole or ground.

USE Black limes are usually used in legume, seafood or meat dishes. They are pierced, peeled or crushed before adding them to the dish. After cooking they become softer and edible. They can also be powdered and added to rice dishes. Powdered black lime is also used as an ingredient in Gulf-…


為何冰箱冷凍室非得是零下18度? 不少家庭的冰箱有led面板,可顯示冷藏室和冷凍室溫度。每次看到那個零下18℃,不少人,包括筆者在內就會禁不住提出一個小疑問:為什麼冷凍室溫度非得是零下18℃?最多零下1℃不就結冰了嗎?搞這麼低溫度實在是浪費電呢。















一般來說,能引起食物腐敗和食物致毒的嗜溫菌,在低於3 ℃情況下不產生毒素,當然,個別菌種例外。

而對於嗜冷菌,一般得在零下10 ℃到零下12 ℃時才會停止生長。

有的黴菌甚至要到零下15~零下18 ℃時才會停止生長。