Patrick improves our mid-level aquaponics system
When I first came to Windward, Duckponics was a project I was immediately interested in. Coming with a background in irrigation and a long time love of pond works and hobby aquariums, I was excited for this was a chance to explore this area at a level I had only dreamed of. Much was in place already, but much was still left to do, and still more was yet unknown. Before I jumped into Duckponics too deep though, I had an opportunity to work with a smaller system already in place here, Barrelponics.
Patrick adds chicken wire to the cattle panel covers

Barrelponics is a study in theory and mechanics. Many projects here start out this way, small. It's a great way to test an idea, a mock up if you will, before making any larger commitments. With anything you do, especially in the presence of unknowns, there will be mistakes. Mistakes, loss, fails, whatever you want to call them, are not necessarily bad if you choose to look at them in the right light. We learn so much from our mistakes and the process of correcting them. This is why starting small works so well for us, small projects = small mistakes = small loss. Once the problems are worked out at the small level we are ready to move on to the next level. So, after getting my hands dirty with barrelponics making some minor changes and additions I had the understanding necessary to more confidently move over to duckponics.

the combination grow raft and float
As I said above, so much was already there. The duck pond, the flood tank, the two large vegetable grow beds, and the smaller duck weed tanks as well as all the tubing, electrical, and drainage. This spring, during his apprenticeship, Jon played an important role in getting duckponics up and running for the first time. So, when I started working on it in early summer, it functioned well, but I wanted to advance the system to achieve its true operational vision. Initially, I focused on getting the holding tank to trigger a flood properly, a better dispersion of water to the grow beds was wanted, working out an appropriate timing with the automatic pump system both in frequency and duration was needed, and inflow and outflow still had to be worked out.

After all this was done effectively (which was much easier after my experiences with barrelponics), there was a whole new gambit of unforeseen challenges to address. Such as, with this abundance of vegetation right there in the open, it invited many local critters to our hopeful feast: the ever present ground squirrels wanted the cucumbers; the yellow jackets wanted the water; and even our own ducks couldn't wait for us to harvest the duckweed for them and were raiding the tanks prematurely. So, it was obvious that protective covers were a must. We made these out of cattle panels and chicken wire and they have proven pretty effective so far.

October 21:
A few words on water flow challenges

the inlet to the flood tank
Another challenge that presented itself even after the basic water flow mechanisms were in place was the effect of the rate of water flow. We have a submersible pump that pulls water from our duck pond up to our flood tank. The pump delivers water to the tank through a one-inch pipe that connects to a 3/4 inch inlet fitting.
This works fine, however, there is a point when the upper float applies enough pressure to the hatch chain to begin opening the rubber flapper door that releases the water to the various vegetable grow tanks. That door is a two inch hole that is diverted to two different pipelines that have ball valve that allows us to control the rate that water flows from the holding tank into the grow tank. If those ball valves are fully open, enough water escapes through the lower port so that the water level in the flood tank never reaches a level where the upper float completely opens the hatch door for the duration of the flood.
So, after much tinkering, we were able to close the ball valves just enough to hold back the escaping water long enough for the pump to trigger the full open flood while still having the ball valves open enough to deliver enough pressure to power the water delivery tubes for the grow beds. If it isn't one thing it's another!

October 22:
Water distribution

So now that the water is flowing and everything seems to be going fine, we need to look at how the plants receive that water. First of all, it is important to know that in any hydroponic system, it is the water that delivers the nutrients the plants need, not the soil. In most hydroponic systems a lot of money is invested in purchasing additives and nutrients for the water, and even more is spent on purchasing special neutral growing mediums such as Hydroton or Vermiculite. That is why we use water from the duck pond, the ducks fertilize the water for free, and in the process the plants filter the water and return cleaner water for the ducks' enjoyment.
ball valve flow adjuster
Also, we use pea gravel as our growth medium as this is more cost effective, more natural, and supports the nitrifying bacteria needed for the necessary biological process of converting ammonia to nitrite and then to nitrate. Pea gravel also makes a great low grade filter.

While we were getting some of the other parts in place and working properly, we were delivering the water to the grow beds as a direct flood to the edge of the bed, you will probably see this in some of the early photos. But as I've said before, the long term vision was for something more sophisticated than this and through experimenting with the setup, we more fully realized the benefits of a "prettier" delivery. Basically, with the pea gravel acting as some what of a filter, if all the water is dumped on one side of the grow tank the nutrients may be unevenly distributed throughout the tank resulting in uneven plant growth.

watering system in action
So, back to the plan. If you have a circular grow bed, one of, if not the most efficient, method of dividing space is to quarter it off. Instead of dumping the water from a tube at the edge we connected four tubes with a central intersection. We capped the end of the three dead end tubes and cut holes in the side of the tank to hold these tube ends up.

Now came the tricky part. From previous observation, we noticed that with sufficient pressure these holes in these tubes acted like spray nozzles, damaging any small plants that were in their line of delivery. The solution we came up with was to drill the holes on either side of the top of the pipes so the water shoots up at an angle and then adjusted the pressure to make sure none of the water flow was directed outside the tank. By using an upward arc in the water we use gravity to pull the water back down to the plants at the speed of rain which every plant is essentially used to.
October 23:
Protecting our pump
It was stated earlier that at a certain point this summer there was a significant increase to our duck flock and this had some unforeseen effects on the pump for duckponics. It was all those baby feathers that eventually clogged up the turbine in the pump and caused it to burn out. We don't want to get rid of the ducks, so what do we do about the feathers?

Well, we cleaned out the duck pond as best as time would allow since other projects (such as watering the main garden and keeping the thriving cucumbers and mint alive in the grow beds of duckponics) depend on the functioning of the duck pond. However, no matter how often we may endeavor to go through a full scale pond flush, the feathers as well as other debris still come back to haunt us, quickly.

We don't know yet if it is the total solution, but we think it is part of it. The box filter. Basically we took an old plastic milk crate and cut mesh screen pieces from a satellite dish to fit on all six sides. We wired them on, cut a custom hole to receive the pump, and attached the two together before resubmerging the new pump.

I don't know if you've seen the screen mesh that old satellite dishes are covered with but the holes are pretty small. Still large enough for plenty of water to move through but just small enough to keep the feathers from getting to the pump. It still requires some checking in on but we would rather clean off the box filter every couple of weeks than replace the pump just as often.

Also on the drawing board is a possible cyclone settling tank that would allow the silt to settle out before being delivered to the flood tank.




全日照  8個小時日照 瓜類、茄果類、豆類、山藥、豆薯(地瓜)。番茄、黃瓜、茄子、辣椒等喜溫中、強光性









菜豆生育過程中,主要吸收鉀和氮較多,還要吸收一定量的磷和鈣,才能良好發育。結莢期吸收磷鉀量較大。磷鉀肥對菜豆植株的生長發育、根瘤菌的發育、花芽分化、開花結莢和種子的發育等均有影響。缺乏磷肥,菜豆嫩莢和種子的品質和產量就會降低。缺鈣,幼葉葉片捲曲,葉緣失綠和生長點死亡。缺硼,則根係不發達,影響根瘤菌固氮,使花和豆莢發育不良。 耐陰半陰(大概3-4小時日照) 應選擇耐陰的蔬菜種植,如萵…


◎飼養與管理的重點 只要不是劇烈的變化,錦鯉很容易適應各水溫水質等環境的變化。並不是沒有大庭園就無法飼養,有人甚至在二樓陽台或頂樓陽台造水池飼養。然而我們是欣賞錦鯉雄壯豪邁之氣,因此水池盡量寬闊為宜,以水深1.2m以上為理想。魚池必須有底水排出,過濾循環等設備。用水不一定要取地下水,自來水也可以飼養。
良好的魚餌不會崩壞鯉的體型。餌的量也是在夏天水溫 高的時候,訂定停餌期間,才是整體來說使鯉變胖最重要的秘訣。如果還是想 要給很多餌的話,要增加循還量。錦鯉在水溫超過28度的時候,應給與相當於 鯉全體重量3%的餌。水溫25度時1.5%,水溫20度時0.3%,16度以下則要停止鯉餌,這就是鯉魚長得強壯的要訣。連續不斷地給鯉餌的話,引起內臟障礙, 而影響到鯉不會長壯,甚至導至體型的變歪。


英文版, English version
中文版, Chinese version
西班牙文版, Espanol version 

連通管基本原理 1.連通管原理指的是,在一般開放的空間中,幾個液體容器的底部都相通的裝置,而若任一容器內注入液體,則當液體靜止時,各容器的液面必在同一水平面。

2.兩 端的大氣壓力一樣,但管內兩端的水受重力作用而各自下墜,下墜瞬間,在圓弧頂部拉出一個真空,因真空而有壓力差,此時兩端的大氣壓 力再次從兩端將兩管的水壓回,但壓回的力量是大氣壓力減去管內的水壓(F=(Patm-PH2O)*A),而長管內的水比短管內的水還要重,所以壓回的力 量是短管的壓力大於長管的壓力,所 以,虹吸管內的水就會不斷的由短管端流入而由長管端流出。


4.如果用兩根連通管,但是其中一個連接抽水馬達,此時一根連通管是抽水,所以另一根把水送回,大氣壓力將兩管的水平衡,所 以,一個馬達可以有兩倍的動力,水就會不斷的循環。


簡易潮汐開關 (外部連通管) 1.由於水持續進入水箱,水在水箱和潮汐開關內以同樣的速度上升。(潮汐開關內的底部是連通的)。虹吸管是通到外部的。水會持續上升到外部的開口端。 2.一旦水上升到內部的開口端,它變成一個密封空間。由於水繼續上升,在水箱內水位繼續上升,但速度變慢。同時,水箱內水壓漸大。
(同時會將管道上端部份空氣帶出,因為空氣在管內流動,也是噪音最大的時候) 4.由於水在水箱到達高水位線後,體積空氣被迫壓縮管道,並透過虹吸作用,排出的空氣壓力後,進而開始大量排水。

1.由於水持續進入水箱,水在水箱和潮汐開關內以同樣的速度上升。(潮汐開關內的底部是連通的)。虹吸管是通到外部的。水會持續上升到內部的開口端。 2.一旦水位上升到內部的開口端,直接…