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窗台農場

窗台農場

住宅中的養耕共生

Window Farms

Aquaponics & Apartments

水耕窗台農場

Window farms are “vertical, hydroponic, modular, low-energy, high-yield edible window gardens built using low-impact or recycled local materials.”  This author of this description is Windowfarms.org, an organization started in Brooklyn with the stated goal of setting up these systems in apartment windows all over New York City.  If you are one of the guilty ones who still drinks water out of plastic bottles, you can recycle them into this project. It uses CFLs, a pump, PVC pipe, daylight, drip irrigation, water bottles and a bit of electricity to produce crops inside and year-round.  Essentially the pump is used to drive water up to the drip irrigation system and the CFLs supplement daylight – making winter crop growing possible.  The energy needs of the system are quite low, as CFLs are long-lived and use much less energy than incandescent lamps.  The pump is off most of the time and is only used to push the drip irrigation.
Of course there are many ways to incorporate urban agriculture into an apartment complex from the simple to the sophisticated.  If there are balconies or patios, potted plants work.  If there are raised beds, these can be replanted with herbs, fruits and vegetables.  Small ground-level plots are the least expensive to create.  There are probably multiple codes to consider, but fire escapes are also great places to grow plants.  Tear up the turf grass, create tenant garden plots and watch your water bill go down.  Tenants will care for the vegetable plots themselves, often greatly reducing landscape maintenance expenses as parts of the grounds convert to growing centers and food corridors.  One thing all gardeners seem to share is a love of a little companionship while weeding and watering, so along with seed and cutting sharing, you may see improvements in your tenant relations.

養耕共生


The ultimate in sustainable apartment living and urban farming, however, would be if every tenant had their very own greenhouse.  We feel compelled to give an Innovative Design Shout Out to the architectural firm that designed a private greenhouse for every apartment in a 150 unit high-rise building.
The firm of Knafo Limor Architects and Town Planners wowed the crowd with their design project for an apartment to be built in Wuhan, China known as the AGRO Housing design which is scheduled for occupancy in 2011.  The firm won the coveted Living Steel Award for the design.  The Living Steel Award recognizes those who have achieved the highest performance in sustainable design with projects for developing countries, but this design has full international appeal.

AGROHousing’s concept  is pretty fascinating. The high-rise 150 unit apartment building has 10,000 sq. meters (107,639 sq.ft.) of developed space. Included in the design are a tenant club, a kindergarten as well as the vertical greenhouse for each individual unit.  The property will rely on many sustainable features including solar-based heating and cooling, renewable energy, water conservation, rain harvesting and graywater reuse to achieve its near net-zero water and energy category.
The Chinese government has estimated that half of China’s population will have migrated to cities from rural areas by the end of 2010. This has stressed infrastructure, exacerbated high unemployment and added many issues that can be experienced with massive urbanization. Although green building advisors generally promote urbanization, it does create problems of supply and demand, particularly for foodstuffs.

The Agro Housing project is expected to address some of the issues created when rural residents are living in an urban environment.  It also recognizes and utilizes their farming skills with its urban agriculture set-up. It is hoped that buildings like this one will reduce demand for some food products in urban areas, reduce poverty and stress, improve nutrition and result in better physical and social health.

With occupancy scheduled for 2011, here are some of the features in thebuilding design that these urban residents will enjoy:
  • The high-rise building melds the feel of urban and rural living
  • A 100 sq.ft. greenhouse is included for each apartment unit
  • Greenhouses use a drip irrigation system developed in Israel (they do not use soil)
  • Plants are grown within an organic medium such as peat moss
  • The irrigation system can be successfully operated by a layperson
  • Residents grow their own organic food and spices – potentially enough to resell
  • The greenhouses help address the difficulty of moving from rural to urban life by integrating the community socially and creating ‘green’ gathering places.
  • The greenhouses are controlled with natural ventilation and solar heating.
  • Tenants produce food that is disease, pesticide and fertilizer free.
  • The drip irrigation system reuses graywater
  • A rooftop terrace garden offers an open green space for recreation and informal gatherings
  • A sky club on the roof is meant to host celebrations, gatherings and events
  • A ground floor kindergarten keeps children close to home
  • Open interiors of individual apartments allow space to be easily re-arranged to accommodate changing family size/needs/work areas
  • The building grounds are minimally developed so the land can be used for rainwater harvesting, exterior gardening and food production.
  • Although paving is minimal to limit building footprint, what little there is will be manufactured from recycled materials.
The Agro Housing greenhouses will be operating through the use of aquaponic farming.  The engineers and designers expect each 100 sq. ft. greenhouse will provide all the produce the tenant family uses each year.  Like other aquaponic systems, the plants grow in a peat moss or coconut shell medium with fish kept in a separate tank.  The drig irrigation system also uses the building graywater and as no heating or cooling is done in the greenhouses – except by natural solar gain and ventilation- the crops are produced almost without expense.  The fish waste is converted by good bacteria that go through a process or two to turn the ammonia into nitrates, which fertilizes the plants. The plants reciprocate by filtering and cleaning the water, which is then returned to the fish.  The fish can also be eaten, so it is a very synergistic approach to agriculture. Of course, the fish must be fed but that is relatively simple.  In this type of system the plants grow very quickly – about one-third to half the time it would take in a conventional summer dirt garden – and they grow very big and healthy.
To see two quick 2 minute teaser videos produced in Australia using an aquaponics system, click here for a linkto a TreeHugger post on the subject.  You may feel a bit jealous when you see the size of the garden produce in the video as it dwarfs anything I’ve been able to raise in my own vegetable plot. Seeing the sort of daily plant growth this system produces outside of the tropics almost seems magical. Another benefit worth mentioning with this greenhouse system is that there is absolutely no weeding.
This is the first project of this type but is expected to be a model for up to 10,000 units in China.  It might also be an excellent model for sustainable urban development right here in the United States.  We already have green roofs and green walls.  Why not greenhouses to match?
If you are interested in greater detail, here is a link to the Specs on the project.
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蔬菜對溫度日照條件的要求

蔬菜對溫度日照條件的要求
全日照  8個小時日照 瓜類、茄果類、豆類、山藥、豆薯(地瓜)。番茄、黃瓜、茄子、辣椒等喜溫中、強光性
蔬菜夏秋季生產,玉米、青椒、西瓜、南瓜、西紅柿、茄子、芝麻、向日葵類。
其次是根莖類,如:馬鈴薯、甜菜、胡蘿蔔、白蘿蔔、甘藷、山藥等等。至少需半日照,才能生長,芋頭雖喜歡全日照,但比其他蔬菜耐蔭。 
需要中等光照大白菜、甘藍、芥菜、蒜、洋蔥。 

長日性蔬菜白菜、甘藍、芥菜、蘿蔔、胡蘿蔔、芹菜、菠菜、萵苣、蠶豆、豌豆、大蔥、洋蔥。

短日性蔬菜豇豆、扁豆、莧菜、空心菜。         

中光性蔬菜黃瓜、番茄、茄子、辣椒、菜豆

菜豆

菜豆喜溫暖,不耐高溫和霜凍。菜豆種子發芽的適溫為20-30℃;在40℃以上的高溫和10℃以下的低溫,種子不易發芽。幼苗生長適宜氣溫為18-25℃。花芽分化的適宜氣溫為20-25℃,過高或過低溫度易出現發育不完全的花蕾、落花。

菜豆對光照強度的要求較高。在適宜溫度條件下,光照充足則植株生長健壯,莖的節間短而分枝多,開花結莢比較多,而且有利於根部對磷肥的吸收。當光照強度減弱時,植株易徒長,莖的節間長,分枝少,葉質薄,而且開花結莢數少,易落花落莢。

菜豆根系強大,能耐一定程度乾旱,但喜中度濕潤土壤條件,要求水分供應適中,不耐澇。生長期適宜土壤濕度為田間最大持水量的60%-70%,空氣相對濕度以80%為宜。開花結莢期對水分最敏感,此期土壤乾旱對開花結莢有不良影響,開花數、結莢數及莢內種子數減少。土壤水分過大時,下部葉片黃化,早脫落。空氣濕度過大會引起徒長、結莢不良。

菜豆具有深根性和根瘤菌,對土壤的要求不甚嚴格,但仍以土層深厚肥沃、排水良好的輕砂壤土或粘質壤土為好。土壤過於粘重、低溫、排水和通氣不良則生長不良,炭疽病重。菜豆喜中性至微酸性土壤,適宜的土壤pH為5-7.0,其中以州6.2-6.8最適宜。菜豆最忌連作,生產中應實行2-3年輪作。

菜豆生育過程中,主要吸收鉀和氮較多,還要吸收一定量的磷和鈣,才能良好發育。結莢期吸收磷鉀量較大。磷鉀肥對菜豆植株的生長發育、根瘤菌的發育、花芽分化、開花結莢和種子的發育等均有影響。缺乏磷肥,菜豆嫩莢和種子的品質和產量就會降低。缺鈣,幼葉葉片捲曲,葉緣失綠和生長點死亡。缺硼,則根係不發達,影響根瘤菌固氮,使花和豆莢發育不良。 耐陰半陰(大概3-4小時日照) 應選擇耐陰的蔬菜種植,如萵…

錦鯉養殖基本知識

◎飼養與管理的重點 只要不是劇烈的變化,錦鯉很容易適應各水溫水質等環境的變化。並不是沒有大庭園就無法飼養,有人甚至在二樓陽台或頂樓陽台造水池飼養。然而我們是欣賞錦鯉雄壯豪邁之氣,因此水池盡量寬闊為宜,以水深1.2m以上為理想。魚池必須有底水排出,過濾循環等設備。用水不一定要取地下水,自來水也可以飼養。
<因為都市中有景觀安全的需求,及屋頂花園有荷重的需求,錦鯉池水深可以低到30cm左右。>
◎每天排水
A、糞或枯死的藻類全部送至過濾槽的話,耗氧量會增大,pH就下降,更會轉變為亞硝酸,增了過濾槽的負擔。為了盡量減輕過濾槽的負擔,每天至少把魚池的底水排水使固物排出去,把中間水送去沉澱槽及過濾槽。 
B、把固體廢物的魚糞集中排出,最好不要從池底打氣而是從排糞口的上方40~50公分打打氣。如此氣泡往上昇。池水產生對流。污物就集中於排糞口。
<可以設計水流把固體廢物盡量集中或排出到過濾系統中。>
◎過濾槽管理
A、細菌附著於濾材,分解固體廢物會消耗大量的氧。 
B、溶氧不足時,厭氧菌會把硝酸還原亞硝酸,或從碳酸氣發生沼氣,也會從硫酸分解產生硫化氫等有毒氣體。
<如果溶氧不足,可以優先把打氣設備放置到生化過濾槽中。>
◎溶氧要充份
A、水中溶氧不足的話,會影響錦鯉的生育,飼料的消化,,水質的維持等等。
B、硝酸,亞硝酸的濃度增高時,會影響溶氧量。所以優先去除硝酸及亞硝酸。
C、使用沸石可輕易去除硝酸,沸石量約等重於魚體總重量。
<沸石再生法,是將沸石浸泡25℃以上1:10食鹽水數小時,再以清水洗淨即可。>
◎水質的控制
水質硬度高的話,錦鯉肌膚經常會有少許充血的狀態。豔麗性也會慢慢消失,紅緋會上升。pH值低,肌膚變的很不好看,但是雖餵增色飼料,依然不見起色,徒增浪費。pH值7.1~7.5最適宜的。
◎鯉餌的重要性
良好的魚餌不會崩壞鯉的體型。餌的量也是在夏天水溫 高的時候,訂定停餌期間,才是整體來說使鯉變胖最重要的秘訣。如果還是想 要給很多餌的話,要增加循還量。錦鯉在水溫超過28度的時候,應給與相當於 鯉全體重量3%的餌。水溫25度時1.5%,水溫20度時0.3%,16度以下則要停止鯉餌,這就是鯉魚長得強壯的要訣。連續不斷地給鯉餌的話,引起內臟障礙, 而影響到鯉不會長壯,甚至導至體型的變歪。
◎魚病預防
水的管理與定期消毒都是很重要的步驟,…

連通管原理與應用

英文版, English version
中文版, Chinese version
西班牙文版, Espanol version 

連通管基本原理 1.連通管原理指的是,在一般開放的空間中,幾個液體容器的底部都相通的裝置,而若任一容器內注入液體,則當液體靜止時,各容器的液面必在同一水平面。



2.兩 端的大氣壓力一樣,但管內兩端的水受重力作用而各自下墜,下墜瞬間,在圓弧頂部拉出一個真空,因真空而有壓力差,此時兩端的大氣壓 力再次從兩端將兩管的水壓回,但壓回的力量是大氣壓力減去管內的水壓(F=(Patm-PH2O)*A),而長管內的水比短管內的水還要重,所以壓回的力 量是短管的壓力大於長管的壓力,所 以,虹吸管內的水就會不斷的由短管端流入而由長管端流出。



3.如果我們用兩根連通管,所以效率會變成兩倍。




4.如果用兩根連通管,但是其中一個連接抽水馬達,此時一根連通管是抽水,所以另一根把水送回,大氣壓力將兩管的水平衡,所 以,一個馬達可以有兩倍的動力,水就會不斷的循環。


問題1:請比較上連通管與下連通管的差異?
問題2:請問雙連通管時,管徑與高度差的關係?



簡易潮汐開關 (外部連通管) 1.由於水持續進入水箱,水在水箱和潮汐開關內以同樣的速度上升。(潮汐開關內的底部是連通的)。虹吸管是通到外部的。水會持續上升到外部的開口端。 2.一旦水上升到內部的開口端,它變成一個密封空間。由於水繼續上升,在水箱內水位繼續上升,但速度變慢。同時,水箱內水壓漸大。
3.由於水位接近高水位線,壓力在開關內鐘將水位上升到臨界,造成部份水會先進入管道。
(同時會將管道上端部份空氣帶出,因為空氣在管內流動,也是噪音最大的時候) 4.由於水在水箱到達高水位線後,體積空氣被迫壓縮管道,並透過虹吸作用,排出的空氣壓力後,進而開始大量排水。
(一旦開始大量排水,也是聲音最小的時候)
5.水會一直流出,直到水位低到讓潮汐開關吸入空氣。然後,潮汐開關回歸起始位置。
6.由於水持續進入水箱,水在水箱和潮汐開關內以同樣的速度上升。(潮汐開關內的底部是連通的)。虹吸管是通到外部的。水會持續上升到內部的開口端。
可以參考以下的影片


簡易鐘型潮汐開關
1.由於水持續進入水箱,水在水箱和潮汐開關內以同樣的速度上升。(潮汐開關內的底部是連通的)。虹吸管是通到外部的。水會持續上升到內部的開口端。 2.一旦水位上升到內部的開口端,直接…