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Shumin Farm


Down On Shumin's Farm
Shumin Wang attended our October, 2010 Commercial Training. I remember him as a remarkable tall man, who sat and beamed a huge smile at almost everything I said. He absolutely glowed with pleasure, and asked very few questions. When he spoke, he apologized for his English, which I assured him was better than my Mandarin. Because of the possibility of language difficulties, I was uncertain how much he actually understood. As it turns out, I need not have worried!

Shumin sent an email to me on March 5th, telling me he would be in Honolulu with his family, for a holiday at the end of April. He asked if he could come to the Big Island to visit us for a day, and we were honored and delighted to say "of course!"

On May 1st, Shumin arrived. We sat around the kitchen table and "talked story" for a while, as we say here in Hawaii. At one point, he asked if we would like to see photos of what he had built. Nothing in our entire experience of learning aquaponics for five years, and teaching it for four even remotely prepared us for what he showed us. Even now, three weeks later, Tim and I are still absolutely stunned.


VegetablesInTroughs2Medium

This photo gives you an idea why we were stunned when Shumin showed us the pictures. Look for the tiny human figure in the far right distance; it will give you an idea of the scale of Shumin's operation. This is only ONE of the three 11,388 square foot greenhouses he is currently operating., and these troughs only go HALFWAY down the length of the greenhouse!

Shumin started out by doing exactly what we recommend our students do: he went home and built a small test system. He spent $10,000 building his test system inside a rented greenhouse, and tested many things; "water vegetables" (as he said, not knowing the English words for the cultivars he grew), and most notably ginseng. After six months of testing, Shumin was ready to move on to his larger project, the first phase of which is now complete.

Shumin found land in a small village called, in English: Chikan Village, and in Pinyin, is called Chikin Cun Wei Hui. Chikan Village is in Yulindian Town, which is in Mouping District, in the Yantai Municipality, in the Shandong Province, in Northeastern China, on a peninsula that juts into the East China Sea.

Yulindian Town covers an area of 129 square kilometers, and in 2004 had 22,000 people. When we viewed his farm using Google Maps, it appeared to be in a very rural area. Here he built what is (to our knowledge), the largest aquaponics facility in the world. In May of 2011, Shumin moved his project here, on to a piece of land that is 20,000 square meters (4.9 acres).

The first phase of his ambitious and well-thought out project is three greenhouses, each 11.5 m x 92 meters (37.7' x 301.8'), for a total area under each greenhouse roof of 1058 square meters (11,388 square feet). All three greenhouses combined have a total area under roof of 3174 square meters (34,164.7 square feet), or almost one third of a hectare! And this is only phase one! Phase two will be built out of cash flow and will double the size to six greenhouses.

Inside each greenhouse, Shumin has built an integrated system that combines aeroponics, deep water culture on both polystyrene and hand made bamboo rafts, and gravel bed. Each greenhouse is divided in half by a huge, 5.5 meter (18 feet) diameter, concrete fish tank, each stocked with 200 kilos (440 pounds) of fish. Half the greenhouse is devoted to aeroponics, growing ginseng eight months of the year, and strawberries the remaining four months, when the ginseng is put into cold storage.

BambooRaft1Medium

A bamboo raft of Shumin's, showing vegetables and roots growing below the raft.

The aeroponics units he designed (and produced himself in his plastics molding factory; he's a resourceful fellow!) are two and a half meters tall (8.2 feet), allowing workers easy access by short ladders to vertical growing units that allow for thousands of plants per greenhouse. On the other side of the greenhouse, are four 45 meter (147.6 foot) troughs; three are raft, one is gravel, as well as one covered germination area one meter (three feet) wide that runs the entire length of each greenhouse (92 meters/301.8 feet).

Shumin has what we call in the States a CSA (Consumer Supported Agriculture) with 40 members, who each pay the equivalent of $1500 US per year for produce, strawberries, chickens, and eggs. This provides Shumin's farm with a solid, guaranteed income of $60,000 per year. The area required to raise the food for the CSA only takes up 25% of his current greenhouse space, leaving another 25% of his production for him to sell to local markets. He has a full 50% of his greenhouse space left for the ginseng and strawberries project.
They are also raising 600 chickens, to sell both meat and eggs.

FishTank1Medium

One of Shumin's concrete fish tanks, with integrated solids settling, net, and degas tanks. Shumin has REALLY cheap fish food, electricity, and labor, with GOOD fish prices, so this HD system makes the most sense for him to use. If you're NOT in China, you need to learn more about what an HD system is, before you just build one and lose your shirt raising fish.

Using aquaponics water, ginseng has a three year growth cycle, rather than the five to six it takes to grow in the ground. It is very easy to tell how old the ginseng is, because the little plants have three leaves the first year, six leaves the second, and nine leaves in the third. Shumin's farm will also produce ginseng seed, baby ginseng, and young plants, which are at present very expensive and almost impossible to acquire. This is a smart business move, and gives his farm one more stream of income.

It cannot be overstated how both medically and culturally significant ginseng is in China. The demand for quality ginseng products always far outstrips supply. From the ginseng operation alone, they  project to bring in $150,000 US per year, beginning in the third year, and continuing every year thereafter. The strawberries are projected to bring in $75,000 US per year, beginning this year. Operating costs, including labor, are projected to be $60-80,000 per year for the entire operation, including the CSA, ginseng, strawberries, and the 25% of his production that goes to local markets.

VegetablesInTrough1Medium

Another greenhouse, another set of troughs with different vegetables. You can see the back wall of the greenhouse covered with aeroponic piping, waiting for the racks that hold the plants to go in.

His entire cost of construction has been $250,000 to complete the first phase, and as mentioned previously, the second phase will be built out of cash flow. Currently, the greenhouse fish tanks are heated with hot water pipes that run underneath them, with the water heated by running a boiler. They will switch to solar hot water soon, as cash flow allows.

Having had many years in business as the owner of a plastics extrusion factory, Shumin's business background is very strong. While some of these numbers are projections, they are based upon his many solid years as a successful business owner. Shumin has invested his own money in a project that he believes will make him money while serving his community.


RootsUnderRafts2Medium

Raft with plant roots, with more troughs and rafts in background.

Shumin and his family are also deeply involved in philanthropic endeavors utilizing aquaponics. Along with Shumin's brother, they have already built an aquaponics system in an orphanage in Thailand.

There are simply no words to express our gratitude to Shumin for attending our training, taking everything we had to offer, and creating something so unique and amazing that Tim and I are still stunned. It is good to know you are in the world, and your aquaponic farm as well. It is a great honor to know you, and to have been involved even a little in your success in aquaponics. Thank you, from the bottom of our hearts.


Aloha, ***Susanne
***

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蔬菜對溫度日照條件的要求

蔬菜對溫度日照條件的要求
全日照  8個小時日照 瓜類、茄果類、豆類、山藥、豆薯(地瓜)。番茄、黃瓜、茄子、辣椒等喜溫中、強光性
蔬菜夏秋季生產,玉米、青椒、西瓜、南瓜、西紅柿、茄子、芝麻、向日葵類。
其次是根莖類,如:馬鈴薯、甜菜、胡蘿蔔、白蘿蔔、甘藷、山藥等等。至少需半日照,才能生長,芋頭雖喜歡全日照,但比其他蔬菜耐蔭。 
需要中等光照大白菜、甘藍、芥菜、蒜、洋蔥。 

長日性蔬菜白菜、甘藍、芥菜、蘿蔔、胡蘿蔔、芹菜、菠菜、萵苣、蠶豆、豌豆、大蔥、洋蔥。

短日性蔬菜豇豆、扁豆、莧菜、空心菜。         

中光性蔬菜黃瓜、番茄、茄子、辣椒、菜豆

菜豆

菜豆喜溫暖,不耐高溫和霜凍。菜豆種子發芽的適溫為20-30℃;在40℃以上的高溫和10℃以下的低溫,種子不易發芽。幼苗生長適宜氣溫為18-25℃。花芽分化的適宜氣溫為20-25℃,過高或過低溫度易出現發育不完全的花蕾、落花。

菜豆對光照強度的要求較高。在適宜溫度條件下,光照充足則植株生長健壯,莖的節間短而分枝多,開花結莢比較多,而且有利於根部對磷肥的吸收。當光照強度減弱時,植株易徒長,莖的節間長,分枝少,葉質薄,而且開花結莢數少,易落花落莢。

菜豆根系強大,能耐一定程度乾旱,但喜中度濕潤土壤條件,要求水分供應適中,不耐澇。生長期適宜土壤濕度為田間最大持水量的60%-70%,空氣相對濕度以80%為宜。開花結莢期對水分最敏感,此期土壤乾旱對開花結莢有不良影響,開花數、結莢數及莢內種子數減少。土壤水分過大時,下部葉片黃化,早脫落。空氣濕度過大會引起徒長、結莢不良。

菜豆具有深根性和根瘤菌,對土壤的要求不甚嚴格,但仍以土層深厚肥沃、排水良好的輕砂壤土或粘質壤土為好。土壤過於粘重、低溫、排水和通氣不良則生長不良,炭疽病重。菜豆喜中性至微酸性土壤,適宜的土壤pH為5-7.0,其中以州6.2-6.8最適宜。菜豆最忌連作,生產中應實行2-3年輪作。

菜豆生育過程中,主要吸收鉀和氮較多,還要吸收一定量的磷和鈣,才能良好發育。結莢期吸收磷鉀量較大。磷鉀肥對菜豆植株的生長發育、根瘤菌的發育、花芽分化、開花結莢和種子的發育等均有影響。缺乏磷肥,菜豆嫩莢和種子的品質和產量就會降低。缺鈣,幼葉葉片捲曲,葉緣失綠和生長點死亡。缺硼,則根係不發達,影響根瘤菌固氮,使花和豆莢發育不良。 耐陰半陰(大概3-4小時日照) 應選擇耐陰的蔬菜種植,如萵…

蝶豆花

蝶豆花 原產拉丁美洲的蝶豆花是一種典型的熱帶蔓藤植物,全年盛開。
butterfly pea,拉丁語叫:Clitoria ternatea,泰語叫Dok Anchan
中文名叫蝶豆花,藍蝶花,藍蝴蝶、蝴蝶藍花,還有蝴羊豆、豆碧等別名。
用蝶豆花當作高品位浪漫的茶品飲用、以及當作天然食品色素制作糕點是拉丁美洲和南洋國家的風情和習俗。
蝶豆花的味道自然甘甜,南洋國家的一些五星級酒店通常把蝶豆花茶當作高貴的迎賓茶來接待貴賓。
營養價值 蝶豆花具有豐富的維他命A,C和E, 而且可以提高免疫力, 幫助和促進皮膚的彈力和骨膠原, 同時還具有補腦,促進腦的活力,防止胃痛,抗憂郁、抗壓力、鎮靜、止驚厥、緩和情緒等天然保健功效。
蝶豆花中的天然藍色素,也是有療效的。如果將其加入檸檬並調制成花茶飲品,就是保健心臟血管的絕佳飲料。
食用價值 蝶豆花的可食部位是葉、花及嫩莢。較幼嫩的葉片及盛開的花朵,亦可拿來煮湯、油炸等。用嫩芽來炒肉絲或煮熟後食用,都十分可口。蝶豆花的葉及花的萃取液,可當作純天然的食品染料。

直達香草(herb4kitchen)
PS.營業用批量報價

錦鯉養殖基本知識

◎飼養與管理的重點 只要不是劇烈的變化,錦鯉很容易適應各水溫水質等環境的變化。並不是沒有大庭園就無法飼養,有人甚至在二樓陽台或頂樓陽台造水池飼養。然而我們是欣賞錦鯉雄壯豪邁之氣,因此水池盡量寬闊為宜,以水深1.2m以上為理想。魚池必須有底水排出,過濾循環等設備。用水不一定要取地下水,自來水也可以飼養。
<因為都市中有景觀安全的需求,及屋頂花園有荷重的需求,錦鯉池水深可以低到30cm左右。>
◎每天排水
A、糞或枯死的藻類全部送至過濾槽的話,耗氧量會增大,pH就下降,更會轉變為亞硝酸,增了過濾槽的負擔。為了盡量減輕過濾槽的負擔,每天至少把魚池的底水排水使固物排出去,把中間水送去沉澱槽及過濾槽。 
B、把固體廢物的魚糞集中排出,最好不要從池底打氣而是從排糞口的上方40~50公分打打氣。如此氣泡往上昇。池水產生對流。污物就集中於排糞口。
<可以設計水流把固體廢物盡量集中或排出到過濾系統中。>
◎過濾槽管理
A、細菌附著於濾材,分解固體廢物會消耗大量的氧。 
B、溶氧不足時,厭氧菌會把硝酸還原亞硝酸,或從碳酸氣發生沼氣,也會從硫酸分解產生硫化氫等有毒氣體。
<如果溶氧不足,可以優先把打氣設備放置到生化過濾槽中。>
◎溶氧要充份
A、水中溶氧不足的話,會影響錦鯉的生育,飼料的消化,,水質的維持等等。
B、硝酸,亞硝酸的濃度增高時,會影響溶氧量。所以優先去除硝酸及亞硝酸。
C、使用沸石可輕易去除硝酸,沸石量約等重於魚體總重量。
<沸石再生法,是將沸石浸泡25℃以上1:10食鹽水數小時,再以清水洗淨即可。>
◎水質的控制
水質硬度高的話,錦鯉肌膚經常會有少許充血的狀態。豔麗性也會慢慢消失,紅緋會上升。pH值低,肌膚變的很不好看,但是雖餵增色飼料,依然不見起色,徒增浪費。pH值7.1~7.5最適宜的。
◎鯉餌的重要性
良好的魚餌不會崩壞鯉的體型。餌的量也是在夏天水溫 高的時候,訂定停餌期間,才是整體來說使鯉變胖最重要的秘訣。如果還是想 要給很多餌的話,要增加循還量。錦鯉在水溫超過28度的時候,應給與相當於 鯉全體重量3%的餌。水溫25度時1.5%,水溫20度時0.3%,16度以下則要停止鯉餌,這就是鯉魚長得強壯的要訣。連續不斷地給鯉餌的話,引起內臟障礙, 而影響到鯉不會長壯,甚至導至體型的變歪。
◎魚病預防
水的管理與定期消毒都是很重要的步驟,…