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窗戶農場/Britta Riley@TED

Britta Riley 談我公寓中的花園
我,就跟你們許多人一樣,是地球20億城市居民當中的一個。有些時候-不知道你們是否也有這種感覺,但有些時 候,我清楚地感受到我生活裡幾乎每一樣東西都得依賴他人;有時候,這甚至有點嚇人。但我今天想與你們分享的,就是這種相互依存關係,事實上是一種極為強大 的社會基礎,我們可以借助於它,解決一些最根本的城市問題,如果我們進行開放資源合作的話。

幾年前,我從《紐約時報》讀到一篇Michael Pollan的文章,他提到親手種植我們本身消費的食物,是我們能為環境所做最棒的事情之一。我讀到這篇文章的時候正值隆冬,在我那間紐約的公寓裡,當然 不可能有容納大片土壤的空間,基本上我只打算繼續讀下一本《連線》雜誌,看看專家們對這些未來的問題有什麼解決方案。但那恰好是Michael Pollan在這篇文章中提出的觀點-如果我們把解決這些問題的責任都丟給專家處理,就會導致如我們目前在食品系統裡所見的混亂局面。

我恰巧因為工作的緣故,對NASA嘗試用水耕法在太空種植植物的情況略有所知。藉著讓一種優質液態土壤流經植物根系,你可以獲得營養價值最高的產物。對蔬菜類植物而言,我公寓的環境就像外太空一樣陌生,但我能提供一些自然光和全年的氣候控制。

2年後,我們有了窗戶農場,這是一種可用於種植室內植物的垂直水耕平臺,運作的方式是靠一個位於底部的水泵, 周期性地將液態養分運輸到上方,然後一點一滴地向下流經包覆在黏土顆粒中植物根系,所以不需要泥土。每一扇窗戶的光線和溫度等微氣候生態都會有所不同,所 以每一個窗戶農場都需要一位農場主照料,她必須決定在窗戶農場裡種植哪一種作物,以及是否加入有機肥料栽培。
當時窗戶農場只是一個技術複雜的想法,需要進行很多測試,我很想把它做成一個開放計畫,因為水耕法現在是美國 專利領域裡成長最快速的項目之一也許會成為另一個領域的孟山都,讓我們擁有大量食物生產方面的共同智慧財產權。於是我決定,並非只開發一個產品,我打算做 的是,將這個系統開放給所有共同開發者。
我們最初開發的幾個系統還算不錯,在一般的紐約公寓窗戶上,我們每周大約能種出一份沙拉,我們能種出小蕃茄和 黃瓜等各種蔬菜。但最初幾個系統會漏水,既吵雜又費電,瑪莎史都華肯定會大皺眉頭。(笑聲)因此,為了吸引更多共同開發者,我們建立了一個交流網站,我們 將設計公佈在上面,解釋它們如何運作,甚至進一步指出系統裡每一處缺點。我們邀請世界各地的人建造這個系統,並與我們一起進行實驗。現在這個網站有一萬八 千名參與者,世界各地都有窗戶農場。
現在我們做的正是NASA或一些大公司裡稱之為R&D,或研究及開發的工作,但我們稱它為R&D-I-Y(註一),或自行研究及開發。例如,Jackson在網站上提了個建議,說我們應該用氣泵而不是水泵,我們建立了幾個系統才終於搞定,但這 樣一來,我們就能使碳足跡幾乎降低一半。芝加哥的Tony持續進行種植實驗,就像許多其他窗戶農場主一樣。他成功在低光照條件下,讓草莓一年中有九個月都 能結出果實,僅藉由調整了有機營養液。芬蘭的窗戶農場主,為了讓他們的窗戶農場適用於芬蘭黑暗的冬季,在農場安裝了LED燈,他們現在將這項資源開放,成 了這個計劃的一部份。
窗戶農場的演進是一個急速更新的過程,就像軟體一樣。每一項開放資源計畫帶來的實際利益是一種相互影響,讓人們為本身特殊考量定制系統的時候,也考慮到一般需求,因此我和我的核心團隊能致力於進行讓每個人都真正受益的改進,我們也照顧到新加入者的需求。
對於自己動手參與的人,我們提供免費及詳細的指導,讓世界上任何人都能免費建立這樣的系統,這些設計系統的專利也是由這個社群共同持有。為了提供這個計畫資金,我們製作出售給學校和個人的產品,供給沒時間親自建造自己系統的人。
如今我們社群裡已產生一種文化,在我們的文化裡,大家認為成為一個支持他人想法的測試者,比僅做個提供想法者 更好。我們從這個計劃中得到的是對這份工作本身的支持,以及對環保運動產生實際貢獻的體驗,不僅是換幾個新式燈泡而已。但我想Eileen的話最能表達出 我們真正從中得到的,就是合作的真正快樂。她說就像是某個跟你相隔半個世界的人,藉由你的想法建造了這個系統,並感謝你的貢獻。如果我們真的想看到巨大消 費行為改變,正如環保人士和食物人(致力於開發食品策略的人)所強調的,也許我們只需深入瞭解「消費者」這個名詞,尋找背後從事生產的勞動者。
開放資源計畫已成為一股風潮,我們可以看到R&D-I-Y計畫已從窗戶農場和LED燈,擴展到太陽能 板和養耕共生系統。我們在前人的基礎上創新,我們也為了下一代所需,重新建構我們現在的生活。我邀請諸位加入我們,重新發現公民團結的價值,並宣佈我們依 然是開創者。
(掌聲)
以下為系統擷取之英文原文
About this Talk
Britta Riley wanted to grow her own food (in her tiny apartment). So she and her friends developed a system for growing plants in discarded plastic bottles -- researching, testing and tweaking the system using social media, trying many variations at once and quickly arriving at the optimal system. Call it distributed DIY. And the results? Delicious.

About the Speaker
Britta Riley designs and builds urban farms and other participatory artworks that explore the city. Full bio and more links
Transcript
I, like many of you, am one of the two billion people on Earth who live in cities. And there are days -- I don't know about the rest of you guys -- but there are days when I palpably feel how much I rely on other people for pretty much everything in my life. And some days, that can even be a little scary. But what I'm here to talk to you about today is how that same interdependence is actually an extremely powerful social infrastructure that we can actually harness to help heal some of our deepest civic issues, if we apply open source collaboration.

A couple of years ago, I read an article by New York Times writer Michael Pollan in which he argued that growing even some of our own food is one of the best things that we can do for the environment. Now at the time that I was reading this, it was the middle of the winter and I definitely did not have room for a lot of dirt in my New York City apartment. So I was basically just willing to settle for just reading the next Wired magazine and finding out how the experts were going to figure out how to solve all these problems for us in the future. But that was actually exactly the point that Michael Pollan was making in this article -- was it's precisely when we hand over the responsibility for all these things to specialists that we cause the kind of messes that we see with the food system.

So, I happen to know a little bit from my own work about how NASA has been using hydroponics to explore growing food in space. And you can actually get optimal nutritional yield by running a kind of high-quality liquid soil over plants' root systems. Now to a vegetable plant, my apartment has got to be about as foreign as outer space. But I can offer some natural light and year-round climate control.

Fast-forward two years later: we now have window farms, which are vertical, hydroponic platforms for food-growing indoors. And the way it works is that there's a pump at the bottom, which periodically sends some of this liquid nutrient solution up to the top, which then trickles down through plants' root systems that are suspended in clay pellets -- so there's no dirt involved. Now light and temperature vary with each window's microclimate, so a window farm requires a farmer, and she must decide what kind of crops she is going to put in her window farm, and whether she is going to feed her food organically.

Back at the time, a window farm was no more than a technically complex idea that was going to require a lot of testing. And I really wanted it to be an open project, because hydroponics is one of the fastest growing areas of patenting in the United States right now and could possibly become another area like Monsanto, where we have a lot of corporate intellectual property in the way of people's food. So I decided that, instead of creating a product, what I was going to do was open this up to a whole bunch of co-developers.

The first few systems that we created, they kind of worked. We were actually able to grow about a salad a week in a typical New York City apartment window. And we were able to grow cherry tomatoes and cucumbers, all kinds of stuff. But the first few systems were these leaky, loud power-guzzlers that Martha Stewart would definitely never have approved. (Laughter) So to bring on more co-developers, what we did was we created a social media site on which we published the designs, we explained how they worked, and we even went so far as to point out everything that was wrong with these systems. And then we invited people all over the world to build them and experiment with us. So actually now on this website, we have 18,000 people. And we have window farms all over the world.

What we're doing is what NASA or a large corporation would call R&D, or research and development. But what we call it is R&D-I-Y, or research and develop it yourself. So for example, Jackson came along and suggested that we use air pumps instead of water pumps. It took building a whole bunch of systems to get it right, but once we did, we were able to cut our carbon footprint nearly in half. Tony in Chicago has been taking on growing experiments, like lots of other window farmers, and he's been able to get his strawberries to fruit for nine months of the year in low-light conditions by simply changing out the organic nutrients. And window farmers in Finland have been customizing their window farms for the dark days of the Finnish winters by outfitting them with LED grow lights that they're now making open source and part of the project.

So window farms have been evolving through a rapid versioning process similar to software. And with every open source project, the real benefit is the interplay between the specific concerns of people customizing their systems for their own particular concerns and the universal concerns. So my core team and I are able to concentrate on the improvements that really benefit everyone. And we're able to look out for the needs of newcomers.

So for do-it-yourselfers, we provide free, very well-tested instructions so that anyone, anywhere around the world, can build one of these systems for free. And there's a patent pending on these systems as well that's held by the community. And to fund the project, we partner to create products that we then sell to schools and to individuals who don't have time to build their own systems.

Now within our community, a certain culture has appeared. In our culture, it is better to be a tester who supports someone else's idea than it is to be just the idea guy. What we get out of this project is we get support for our own work, as well as an experience of actually contributing to the environmental movement in a way other than just screwing in new light bulbs. But I think that Eileen expresses best what we really get out of this, which is the actual joy of collaboration. So she expresses here what it's like to see someone halfway across the world having taken your idea, built upon it and then acknowledging you for contributing. If we really want to see the kind of wide consumer behavior change that we're all talking about as environmentalists and food people, maybe we just need to ditch the term "consumer" and get behind the people who are doing stuff.

Open source projects tend to have a momentum of their own. And what we're seeing is that R&D-I-Y has moved beyond just window farms and LEDs into solar panels and aquaponic systems. And we're building upon innovations of generations who went before us. And we're looking ahead at generations who really need us to retool our lives now. So we ask that you join us in rediscovering the value of citizens united, and to declare that we are all still pioneers.


註一:R&DIY:將研發的概念以DIY的型式實際做出來

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蔬菜對溫度日照條件的要求

蔬菜對溫度日照條件的要求
全日照  8個小時日照 瓜類、茄果類、豆類、山藥、豆薯(地瓜)。番茄、黃瓜、茄子、辣椒等喜溫中、強光性
蔬菜夏秋季生產,玉米、青椒、西瓜、南瓜、西紅柿、茄子、芝麻、向日葵類。
其次是根莖類,如:馬鈴薯、甜菜、胡蘿蔔、白蘿蔔、甘藷、山藥等等。至少需半日照,才能生長,芋頭雖喜歡全日照,但比其他蔬菜耐蔭。 
需要中等光照大白菜、甘藍、芥菜、蒜、洋蔥。 

長日性蔬菜白菜、甘藍、芥菜、蘿蔔、胡蘿蔔、芹菜、菠菜、萵苣、蠶豆、豌豆、大蔥、洋蔥。

短日性蔬菜豇豆、扁豆、莧菜、空心菜。         

中光性蔬菜黃瓜、番茄、茄子、辣椒、菜豆

菜豆

菜豆喜溫暖,不耐高溫和霜凍。菜豆種子發芽的適溫為20-30℃;在40℃以上的高溫和10℃以下的低溫,種子不易發芽。幼苗生長適宜氣溫為18-25℃。花芽分化的適宜氣溫為20-25℃,過高或過低溫度易出現發育不完全的花蕾、落花。

菜豆對光照強度的要求較高。在適宜溫度條件下,光照充足則植株生長健壯,莖的節間短而分枝多,開花結莢比較多,而且有利於根部對磷肥的吸收。當光照強度減弱時,植株易徒長,莖的節間長,分枝少,葉質薄,而且開花結莢數少,易落花落莢。

菜豆根系強大,能耐一定程度乾旱,但喜中度濕潤土壤條件,要求水分供應適中,不耐澇。生長期適宜土壤濕度為田間最大持水量的60%-70%,空氣相對濕度以80%為宜。開花結莢期對水分最敏感,此期土壤乾旱對開花結莢有不良影響,開花數、結莢數及莢內種子數減少。土壤水分過大時,下部葉片黃化,早脫落。空氣濕度過大會引起徒長、結莢不良。

菜豆具有深根性和根瘤菌,對土壤的要求不甚嚴格,但仍以土層深厚肥沃、排水良好的輕砂壤土或粘質壤土為好。土壤過於粘重、低溫、排水和通氣不良則生長不良,炭疽病重。菜豆喜中性至微酸性土壤,適宜的土壤pH為5-7.0,其中以州6.2-6.8最適宜。菜豆最忌連作,生產中應實行2-3年輪作。

菜豆生育過程中,主要吸收鉀和氮較多,還要吸收一定量的磷和鈣,才能良好發育。結莢期吸收磷鉀量較大。磷鉀肥對菜豆植株的生長發育、根瘤菌的發育、花芽分化、開花結莢和種子的發育等均有影響。缺乏磷肥,菜豆嫩莢和種子的品質和產量就會降低。缺鈣,幼葉葉片捲曲,葉緣失綠和生長點死亡。缺硼,則根係不發達,影響根瘤菌固氮,使花和豆莢發育不良。 耐陰半陰(大概3-4小時日照) 應選擇耐陰的蔬菜種植,如萵…

黑檸檬

黑檸檬
Dried lemons are actually limes and are used heavily in Persian Gulf and also Iranian cuisine where they add a strong bitter flavor in addition to sourness. They are made by boiling ripe limes in salt water, and then sun drying until the insides turn black. The outside color varies from tan to black. They are sold whole or ground.

Black Lime is a spice used in Middle Eastern dishes. It is made by boiling fresh lime in salt water and sun drying until the insides turn black. The outside color varies from tan to black. It is sold whole or ground.

黑檸檬實際上是使用萊姆,並且在波斯灣和伊朗料理中被大量使用,除了酸味外,它們還添加了強烈的苦味。它們是利用鹽水煮成熟萊姆,然後曬乾,直到內部變黑。外部顏色從棕褐色變化到黑色。他們可以整顆或切片販售。
黑檸檬是用於中東菜餚的香料。它是通過在鹽水中煮沸新鮮的檸檬並經天然乾燥,直到內部變黑。外觀從棕褐色變成黑色。
USE Black limes are usually used in legume, seafood or meat dishes. They are pierced, peeled or crushed before adding them to the dish. After cooking they become softer and edible. They can also be powdered and added to rice dishes. Powdered black lime is also used as an ingredient in Gulf-…

為何冰箱冷凍室非得是零下18度?

為何冰箱冷凍室非得是零下18度? 不少家庭的冰箱有led面板,可顯示冷藏室和冷凍室溫度。每次看到那個零下18℃,不少人,包括筆者在內就會禁不住提出一個小疑問:為什麼冷凍室溫度非得是零下18℃?最多零下1℃不就結冰了嗎?搞這麼低溫度實在是浪費電呢。

聰明如很多人是這樣推測的

百思不得其解,於是很多人,包括筆者在內就開始推測後面的機制了。冷凍室的零下18℃其實不費電,相反,它是節約電力的一個好措施。為何?

冰箱隔一段時間,內部溫度升高後,它就要啟動壓縮機,嗡嗡嗡的。頻繁啟動壓縮機不僅耗電,冰箱的壽命也會降低,還有就是很吵人。怎麼辦?簡單,先把冷凍室的溫度搞得低低的,比如零下18℃左右。


然後,冷凍室的冷氣往上走,來到冷藏室,如此,就能長時間保持冷藏室的溫度處於0到8℃以內了。

待冷凍室的冷氣散失過多,溫度升高到零下幾度時,再啟動冰箱的壓縮機把溫度再次降到零下18℃,如此,冰箱的啟動次數就變少了。

實際是這樣嗎?很遺憾,不是。

原因之一:不一樣的水

水到零度以下就結冰了,這是絕大多數人的認識。然而仔細一想,這不適用於冰箱的冷凍室。因為冷凍室存放的不是上百升礦泉水,而是各種各樣的食物。

食物中含有大量水這沒錯,但這些水同時含有大量的鹽、糖等物質。就像每1升海水中大約含有35克鹽,所以平均起來,要到零下1.33℃時海水才會結冰。

因此,要想把食物凍結,並不是溫度只要達到水的冰點就可以,得保證足夠低的溫度,食物中的水才能凍結,這很重要,因為食物中只要有液態水存在,這就等於是為各種細菌的繁殖提供了必備條件。

圖為牛肉薄片在不同溫度和不同時間內測得的牛肉中凍結水量的曲線。

當牛肉薄片的溫度為零下4℃時,只有70%的水分被凍結;溫度下降到零下9℃左右時,也還有3%的水分未凍結;即使牛肉薄片的溫度降低到零下18℃時,也不是100%的水分都被凍結住。

原因之二:嗜冷微生物

根據微生物對不同溫度的適應範圍,可將微生物分為三大類,嗜熱菌、嗜溫菌和嗜冷菌。在食物的冷藏和冷凍過程中,我們面對的「敵人」是嗜溫菌和嗜冷菌。

一般來說,能引起食物腐敗和食物致毒的嗜溫菌,在低於3 ℃情況下不產生毒素,當然,個別菌種例外。

而對於嗜冷菌,一般得在零下10 ℃到零下12 ℃時才會停止生長。

有的黴菌甚至要到零下15~零下18 ℃時才會停止生長。

瞧,我們以為,零下幾攝氏度後微生物就被殺死或停止繁殖了,但…