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水苔

Sphagnum Moss
What is sphagnum moss? Where does it grow? Is it useful or does it pose health dangers? Let's find out.
Most of us are familiar with sphagnum moss. You don't think so? Hmmm...you probably know most species of this genus of moss by the name of peat moss or bog moss. Well, even if you've never heard of it, you must have seen it albeit without realizing what it's called - oh come on! Are you trying to tell me you've never seen those green, cushion like layers that sprawl across the surface of still water bodies or marshes during the rainy seasons? Well, that is sphagnum moss! This type of moss is generally known by the name of peat moss because it tends to exists in abundance in acidic peat wetlands and mires. Let's get to know this moss a little closely to find out everything about its life cycle, geographical distribution, conservation status, uses and health hazards.
水苔
水苔是什麼?它生長在哪裡?他對健康有害嗎?讓我們一探究竟。
我們大多數人都熟悉水苔。你不這麼認為嗎?嗯......你大概知道這種苔蘚泥炭蘚沼澤苔蘚的名稱屬品種最。好吧,即使你從來沒有聽說過它,你必須看到它 雖然沒有實現它叫什麼 - 拜託!你想告訴我你從來沒有見過這樣層層的綠色,坐墊,蔓延整個地表水體或沼澤在雨季?嗯,這是水苔!一般人都知道這種類型的苔蘚泥炭蘚的名稱,因為它往 往存在豐富的酸性泥炭濕地和沼澤。讓我們知道這青苔一點密切合作,以找出一切有關其生命週期,地理分佈,保護現狀,用途和健康危害。
What is Sphagnum Moss
A close scrutiny of the green vegetative layer that spans across marshes and wetlands would reveal that there are actually two distinct layers of vegetation involved. The upper, topmost surface that faces the sky is actually made up of a layer of live-growing moss cover, while the subsequent layers that lie underneath this surface layer is composed of decaying vegetative matter which is known as sphagnum peat moss. Sphagnum moss belongs to the phylum Bryophytes which is a lower strata of the plant kingdom that also includes lower plant forms like seaweed and algae. Like all other mosses, protists and fungi, Sphagnum mosses undergo metagenesis. The haploid gametophyte releases archegonia (female gametes that produce eggs) and antheridia (male counterpart that produces sperms). The sperms swim across the water to access the archegonia and fertilize the eggs contained therein. The fertilized eggs are known as diploid zygote and these turn into sporophytes which, on maturity, manufacture and produce haploid spores. On germination, these spores become gametophytes and the entire cycle starts all over again.
什麼是水苔
一個跨越,橫跨沼澤和濕地的綠色植被層的密切關注,就會發現其實是有兩種截然不同的植被層參與。面臨的天空上,頂層的表面活生長的苔蘚覆蓋層組成,而隨後 的層位於表層下面這腐爛的營養物質被稱為泥炭蘚組成。水苔屬於門的苔蘚植物,這是一個低下層的植物王國,還包括較低的植物,如海藻和藻類形式。像所有其他 的苔蘚,原生生物和真菌,泥炭蘚類植物進行metagenesis。單倍體配子體排放頸卵器(產生卵子的雌配子)和antheridia(產生精子的男 性)。精子遊過水進入頸卵器及受精的雞蛋中所載。受精卵被稱為二倍體受精卵,孢子,成熟,製造和產生單倍體的孢子,這些反過來。對種子發芽,這些孢子成為 配子體和整個週期重新開始。
Bogs and sphagnum mosses share a symbiotic relationship. Bogs and all vegetation that thrive there are completely dependent upon rainfall to derive nutrition. Sphagnum moss has an important role to play here, as it has the ability to trap and store air and rainwater within its cells that can be used by the rest of the bog after the rains have ceased. Let's take a look at some other interesting facts about sphagnum moss.
沼澤和泥炭蘚苔蘚共享一個共生的關係。沼澤和植被的茁壯成長有完全依賴後,降雨以獲得營養。水苔具有重要的作用,在這裡打球,因為它有能力捕獲和細胞內的降雨已經停止後,可以用於休息的沼澤,空氣和雨水商店。讓我們來看看一些水苔其他有趣的事實。
Sphagnum Moss Facts
Check out these interesting facts about sphagnum moss and you'll realize that this particular moss is much more than a bog-shroud.
水苔事實
退房有關水苔這些有趣的事實,你就會明白,這個特殊的苔蘚是遠遠高於沼澤壽衣。

The largest number of Sphagnum species occur in the Northern hemisphere including the Arctic tundra biome where they can be seen in the summer months growing over moist, soggy, summer marshes. A few species are also found in the Southern hemisphere, especially in Argentina, Chile, New Zealand, sub-tropical regions of Brazil and Tasmania.
Like all other species of moss, the sphagnum moss is also capable of dispersing its spores aerially.
Due to its ability to lock large amounts of moisture and air within its cells, peat moss is widely used as a soil conditioner for gardening and horticulture.
泥炭蘚物種數量最多的出現在北半球,包括北極苔原群落,在那裡他們可以看到在夏季多潮濕,潮濕,夏季沼澤個月增長。在南半球,尤其是在阿根廷,智利,新西蘭,巴西和塔斯馬尼亞州的亞熱帶地區,少數種類也發現。
象所有其他種類的苔蘚,泥炭蘚也能夠分散其孢子在空中。
由於它能夠鎖住大量水分,其細胞內的空氣,泥炭被廣泛用作土壤改良劑的園林園藝。
吸收能力和酸性泥炭組成,是兩次世界大戰期間流行的傷口敷料,因為它作為抗菌劑和殺菌劑的作用。
The absorbing capability and acidic composition of peat moss made it a popular dressing for wounds during both World Wars, since it acts as an anti bacterial agent and fungicide.
Peat moss is considered as an organic alternative to chlorine for purifying the water of swimming pools.
Mushroom grow well in peat moss conditioned soil.
Peat covered bogs, due to their acidic environment, are known to have been used for preserving food items like butter and lard.
Sphagnum moss is also useful in dissolving septic tank effluents where the soil is inappropriate for such activity.
Despite all its anti-bacterial and fungicidal properties (owing to its acidic environment), peat moss is often known to be a host to the Sporothrix schenckii fungus which can lead to Sporotrichosis on contact with broken skin.
There are about as many as 300 species of moss that compose of the sphagnum genus.

Sphagnum moss is often cultivated by gardeners and horticulturists for enlivening their bog gardens as well as to condition and replenish garden soil and act as a fertilizer to other flowering plants and ferns. Growing sphagnum moss is quite easy. The simplest way to cultivate sphagnum moss is to lay some dead peat at the bottom of a vessel full of water and laying a little live moss culture on top of it. Leave the vessel out in the rain and allow the sphagnum moss to grow and spread. This way, you may be able to create your very own bog garden. 
泥炭被視為一個有機的替代氯氣泳池水淨化。
蘑菇泥炭蘚空調土壤中生長良好。
泥炭沼澤覆蓋,由於其酸性環境,是已知的,已被用來保存食品,如黃油和豬油。
水苔也是在溶解化糞池的污水,這裡的土壤是不適用於這類活動非常有用的。
儘管所有的抗細菌和真菌的特性(由於其酸性環境),泥炭蘚經常被稱為是申克孢子絲菌可導致破損的皮膚接觸到孢子絲菌病的主機。
有多達300蘚類植物,泥炭蘚屬組成。

水苔通常被園丁和園藝栽培,活躍他們的沼澤花園以及條件和補充菜園土,並作為向其他開花植物和蕨類植物的肥料。種植水苔是很容易的。培養水苔最簡單的方法是在一個裝滿水的容器底部鋪設在它的上面一點點活苔文化奠定死的泥炭。離開該船隻在雨中,讓水苔的生長和擴散。這樣,您可能能夠創建你自己的沼澤花園。

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全日照  8個小時日照 瓜類、茄果類、豆類、山藥、豆薯(地瓜)。番茄、黃瓜、茄子、辣椒等喜溫中、強光性
蔬菜夏秋季生產,玉米、青椒、西瓜、南瓜、西紅柿、茄子、芝麻、向日葵類。
其次是根莖類,如:馬鈴薯、甜菜、胡蘿蔔、白蘿蔔、甘藷、山藥等等。至少需半日照,才能生長,芋頭雖喜歡全日照,但比其他蔬菜耐蔭。 
需要中等光照大白菜、甘藍、芥菜、蒜、洋蔥。 

長日性蔬菜白菜、甘藍、芥菜、蘿蔔、胡蘿蔔、芹菜、菠菜、萵苣、蠶豆、豌豆、大蔥、洋蔥。

短日性蔬菜豇豆、扁豆、莧菜、空心菜。         

中光性蔬菜黃瓜、番茄、茄子、辣椒、菜豆

菜豆

菜豆喜溫暖,不耐高溫和霜凍。菜豆種子發芽的適溫為20-30℃;在40℃以上的高溫和10℃以下的低溫,種子不易發芽。幼苗生長適宜氣溫為18-25℃。花芽分化的適宜氣溫為20-25℃,過高或過低溫度易出現發育不完全的花蕾、落花。

菜豆對光照強度的要求較高。在適宜溫度條件下,光照充足則植株生長健壯,莖的節間短而分枝多,開花結莢比較多,而且有利於根部對磷肥的吸收。當光照強度減弱時,植株易徒長,莖的節間長,分枝少,葉質薄,而且開花結莢數少,易落花落莢。

菜豆根系強大,能耐一定程度乾旱,但喜中度濕潤土壤條件,要求水分供應適中,不耐澇。生長期適宜土壤濕度為田間最大持水量的60%-70%,空氣相對濕度以80%為宜。開花結莢期對水分最敏感,此期土壤乾旱對開花結莢有不良影響,開花數、結莢數及莢內種子數減少。土壤水分過大時,下部葉片黃化,早脫落。空氣濕度過大會引起徒長、結莢不良。

菜豆具有深根性和根瘤菌,對土壤的要求不甚嚴格,但仍以土層深厚肥沃、排水良好的輕砂壤土或粘質壤土為好。土壤過於粘重、低溫、排水和通氣不良則生長不良,炭疽病重。菜豆喜中性至微酸性土壤,適宜的土壤pH為5-7.0,其中以州6.2-6.8最適宜。菜豆最忌連作,生產中應實行2-3年輪作。

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錦鯉養殖基本知識

◎飼養與管理的重點 只要不是劇烈的變化,錦鯉很容易適應各水溫水質等環境的變化。並不是沒有大庭園就無法飼養,有人甚至在二樓陽台或頂樓陽台造水池飼養。然而我們是欣賞錦鯉雄壯豪邁之氣,因此水池盡量寬闊為宜,以水深1.2m以上為理想。魚池必須有底水排出,過濾循環等設備。用水不一定要取地下水,自來水也可以飼養。
<因為都市中有景觀安全的需求,及屋頂花園有荷重的需求,錦鯉池水深可以低到30cm左右。>
◎每天排水
A、糞或枯死的藻類全部送至過濾槽的話,耗氧量會增大,pH就下降,更會轉變為亞硝酸,增了過濾槽的負擔。為了盡量減輕過濾槽的負擔,每天至少把魚池的底水排水使固物排出去,把中間水送去沉澱槽及過濾槽。 
B、把固體廢物的魚糞集中排出,最好不要從池底打氣而是從排糞口的上方40~50公分打打氣。如此氣泡往上昇。池水產生對流。污物就集中於排糞口。
<可以設計水流把固體廢物盡量集中或排出到過濾系統中。>
◎過濾槽管理
A、細菌附著於濾材,分解固體廢物會消耗大量的氧。 
B、溶氧不足時,厭氧菌會把硝酸還原亞硝酸,或從碳酸氣發生沼氣,也會從硫酸分解產生硫化氫等有毒氣體。
<如果溶氧不足,可以優先把打氣設備放置到生化過濾槽中。>
◎溶氧要充份
A、水中溶氧不足的話,會影響錦鯉的生育,飼料的消化,,水質的維持等等。
B、硝酸,亞硝酸的濃度增高時,會影響溶氧量。所以優先去除硝酸及亞硝酸。
C、使用沸石可輕易去除硝酸,沸石量約等重於魚體總重量。
<沸石再生法,是將沸石浸泡25℃以上1:10食鹽水數小時,再以清水洗淨即可。>
◎水質的控制
水質硬度高的話,錦鯉肌膚經常會有少許充血的狀態。豔麗性也會慢慢消失,紅緋會上升。pH值低,肌膚變的很不好看,但是雖餵增色飼料,依然不見起色,徒增浪費。pH值7.1~7.5最適宜的。
◎鯉餌的重要性
良好的魚餌不會崩壞鯉的體型。餌的量也是在夏天水溫 高的時候,訂定停餌期間,才是整體來說使鯉變胖最重要的秘訣。如果還是想 要給很多餌的話,要增加循還量。錦鯉在水溫超過28度的時候,應給與相當於 鯉全體重量3%的餌。水溫25度時1.5%,水溫20度時0.3%,16度以下則要停止鯉餌,這就是鯉魚長得強壯的要訣。連續不斷地給鯉餌的話,引起內臟障礙, 而影響到鯉不會長壯,甚至導至體型的變歪。
◎魚病預防
水的管理與定期消毒都是很重要的步驟,…

蝶豆花

蝶豆花 原產拉丁美洲的蝶豆花是一種典型的熱帶蔓藤植物,全年盛開。
butterfly pea,拉丁語叫:Clitoria ternatea,泰語叫Dok Anchan
中文名叫蝶豆花,藍蝶花,藍蝴蝶、蝴蝶藍花,還有蝴羊豆、豆碧等別名。
用蝶豆花當作高品位浪漫的茶品飲用、以及當作天然食品色素制作糕點是拉丁美洲和南洋國家的風情和習俗。
蝶豆花的味道自然甘甜,南洋國家的一些五星級酒店通常把蝶豆花茶當作高貴的迎賓茶來接待貴賓。
營養價值 蝶豆花具有豐富的維他命A,C和E, 而且可以提高免疫力, 幫助和促進皮膚的彈力和骨膠原, 同時還具有補腦,促進腦的活力,防止胃痛,抗憂郁、抗壓力、鎮靜、止驚厥、緩和情緒等天然保健功效。
蝶豆花中的天然藍色素,也是有療效的。如果將其加入檸檬並調制成花茶飲品,就是保健心臟血管的絕佳飲料。
食用價值 蝶豆花的可食部位是葉、花及嫩莢。較幼嫩的葉片及盛開的花朵,亦可拿來煮湯、油炸等。用嫩芽來炒肉絲或煮熟後食用,都十分可口。蝶豆花的葉及花的萃取液,可當作純天然的食品染料。

直達香草(herb4kitchen)
PS.營業用批量報價