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學生建立虛擬養耕共生公司

學生建立虛擬養耕共生公司

Tom LaVenture/The Garden Island
Mayor Bernard Carvalho Jr. congratulates Kapa‘a High School students on their Virtual Enterprise project, with County Councilwoman JoAnn Yukimura at left.

March 11, 2013 12:45 am • Tom LaVenture - The Garden Island

LIHU‘E-受到Kaua‘i 社區大學養耕共生課程的啓發, 25位Kapa高中的學生創立了一個虛擬的養耕共生的生意希望仿效Kaua‘i的方式自行供應自給的食物.
“A lot of the stuff the county government is trying to do ties right into what you are already doing,” Mayor Bernard Carvalho Jr. told the students Thursday. “You are the future.”
The students are seniors in Christine Parr Farina’s “Virtual Enterprise” class, which includes economics and business classes. The annual capstone project was the Aquafinity Business Plan, presented to the public Thursday at Kaua‘i Beach Resort in Nukoli‘i.
“A Virtual Enterprise is a simulated business that is set up and run by students to prepare them for working in a real business environment,” said Parr Farina, adding the students decide on the business, the products and services, and the management structure, with each taking a particular role or responsibility.
The instructor as a “consultant” on the project and real-world business partners also offer advice and expertise, she said.
“This is true project-based learning,” Parr Farina said. “The key is that all students are working to their own individual strengths.”
Carvalho, a 1979 graduate of Kapa‘a High School, said the students have shown the foresight and thinking that ties right into the heart of community issues. He said the students are on the right track, and invited them to hold a workshop for county department heads and staff.
Parr Farina said that her teacher’s assistant, Merlyn Craddock, works exclusively on the aquaponics project and made this second-year event possible. There are a lot of details to work out, she said.




Aquafinity CEO Maddy Rausch said that with Kaua‘i importing approximately 85 percent of its food, it is clear that sustainable growing companies are needed to help recapture some of the $3 billion that leave the state annually for basic resources.




“What happens if the unthinkable happens and the barges don’t come?” Rausch said. “How do we feed the people when there is one week’s worth of food in the markets?”




Chloe Fredericksen, assistant to the CEO, introduced Aquafinity as a sustainable food production system that is affordable, healthy and profitable as a restaurant and exporter. “The Giving Tree,” the restaurant created by the company, uses its own fish and produce, and gets anything else from local meats and growers, she said.
“We believe that Aquafinity will not only implement sustainability in our restaurant but with our consulting firm and marketing plan, will also encourage the community to do so as well,” Fredericksen said.
財務長Reeve說“我們作了很多研究”.
由副總Sonny所領導的業務團隊包括Lance Miyashiro, Adarah Fujita, Erika Saronitman.
With the economy and the environmental outlook, these types of projects are essential, Check said. They crunched the numbers based on data from the financial consultants on the cost of production and potential sales through the restaurant and exports.
The presentation noted that aquaponics has a 30-day growing time — half of the soil-cultivation time — to double the output.
“養耕共生比傳統農耕收成多了9成,空間少了9成,省水9成”Sonny回答.
Adarah Fujita身兼產品開發, said she wanted to make an outstanding menu but one that uses the produce and fish they produce. She put her ideas together with the restaurant designers in accordance to the business plan.
Kaua‘i County Councilwoman JoAnn Yukimura said it was impressive that the students created business to make money but also to change the world and make it better. A business plan that fits the present and the future, she said.




“That is a seed change in many, many ways,” Yukimura said.




She said commerce is usually just profit-oriented and that is important, but the students followed a triple-bottom line about the earth, people and profit.




“You’ve connected them all together,” Yukimura said.




Lawson Fernandes served as the emcee. He is the event planner and chief public relations officer for the project.




The Accounting team was led by Trevor McCracken, vice president, with Ken Miyata, branch manager, and Scott Macmillan, business banker.




Macmillan credited the teamwork and hard work of students with creating a good project. He enjoys working with numbers and felt he could contribute in the accounting area.




The team worked with the engineering data and to run their estimates of the investment, loans, income and expenses. They had employee and business manuals to help ensure they covered all the bases.




Even though its virtual, running the funds using the online bank made it all real to them since it resembled so much the way business is conducted today.




Miyata said that as the son of a fisherman, he enjoyed taking an idea to the next level that allows a tradition to continue in a sustainable way. He said sea-water aquaponics projects could work with the right fish and plants to flourish in this climate.




The Marketing team was lead by Spencer Turner, vice president, and included Taylor Anama, coordinator, and Len Tangonan, assistant.




“Spencer is great with computers and presentations, and I am more of a design girl,” Anama said. “I took what he gave me and put it into my catalogue,” she said.




Anama said the students studied economics and had a good understanding of business fundamentals prior to the building the capstone project.




The Human Resources team included Camille Grange, vice president, and Josh Cram, communications specialist. They worked on developing workplace policies for personnel, but also handled facility recyclables to include photovoltaic and wind energy.




The Technology team was led by Chas Pham, vice president, and included Teresa Huff, web master and designer, and Mason Mendoza, commercial artist. They created the logos and publications.




The Engineering team was led by Dylan Devin, vice president, and included John Goode, aquaponics, Tanner Henry, financial consultant, Kawai Barrett and Brandon Napriorkowski, operations technicians, and Noah Plemer, agricultural technician.




Devin said the team wanted to build a large scale system with low energy costs and high output to maximize profits.




Tanner said the projections were based on similar existing businesses with adjustments for a Kaua‘i operation. He said the unique part about the project was that they created a gravity-based aquaponics system that uses no pumps and pipes.




“Gravity and hills use less energy,” Tanner said.




Plemer has an aquaponics background from another senior project. He said the ammonia bacteria produced from fish waste is converted to nitrites and then nitrates that are plant nutrients. The plant roots in turn filter the water and produce nutrients and oxygen for the fish.




What is in the growing bed is getting put back into the fish tank, Plemer said. Any organic additives or chemicals can mess up the pH level of the aquariums and hurt the fish, he added.




Gravel or hydrofil clay work to hold the roots of starting plants. Volcanic ash is another type of soil that can be scraped off the roots to place in the hydrobeds, he said.




“Project based learning is intense and really hard,” Plemer said. “It was very eye-opening.”




The students are the only Hawai‘i school to be part of the California Virtual Enterprise International, which has 144 student companies in 97 schools. It is the largest student enterprise system in the country with about 4,000 students, Parr Farina said.




• Tom LaVenture, staff writer, can be reached at 245-0424 or by emailing tlaventure@thegardenisland.com.

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蔬菜對溫度日照條件的要求

蔬菜對溫度日照條件的要求
全日照  8個小時日照 瓜類、茄果類、豆類、山藥、豆薯(地瓜)。番茄、黃瓜、茄子、辣椒等喜溫中、強光性
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其次是根莖類,如:馬鈴薯、甜菜、胡蘿蔔、白蘿蔔、甘藷、山藥等等。至少需半日照,才能生長,芋頭雖喜歡全日照,但比其他蔬菜耐蔭。 
需要中等光照大白菜、甘藍、芥菜、蒜、洋蔥。 

長日性蔬菜白菜、甘藍、芥菜、蘿蔔、胡蘿蔔、芹菜、菠菜、萵苣、蠶豆、豌豆、大蔥、洋蔥。

短日性蔬菜豇豆、扁豆、莧菜、空心菜。         

中光性蔬菜黃瓜、番茄、茄子、辣椒、菜豆

菜豆

菜豆喜溫暖,不耐高溫和霜凍。菜豆種子發芽的適溫為20-30℃;在40℃以上的高溫和10℃以下的低溫,種子不易發芽。幼苗生長適宜氣溫為18-25℃。花芽分化的適宜氣溫為20-25℃,過高或過低溫度易出現發育不完全的花蕾、落花。

菜豆對光照強度的要求較高。在適宜溫度條件下,光照充足則植株生長健壯,莖的節間短而分枝多,開花結莢比較多,而且有利於根部對磷肥的吸收。當光照強度減弱時,植株易徒長,莖的節間長,分枝少,葉質薄,而且開花結莢數少,易落花落莢。

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黑檸檬

黑檸檬
Dried lemons are actually limes and are used heavily in Persian Gulf and also Iranian cuisine where they add a strong bitter flavor in addition to sourness. They are made by boiling ripe limes in salt water, and then sun drying until the insides turn black. The outside color varies from tan to black. They are sold whole or ground.

Black Lime is a spice used in Middle Eastern dishes. It is made by boiling fresh lime in salt water and sun drying until the insides turn black. The outside color varies from tan to black. It is sold whole or ground.

黑檸檬實際上是使用萊姆,並且在波斯灣和伊朗料理中被大量使用,除了酸味外,它們還添加了強烈的苦味。它們是利用鹽水煮成熟萊姆,然後曬乾,直到內部變黑。外部顏色從棕褐色變化到黑色。他們可以整顆或切片販售。
黑檸檬是用於中東菜餚的香料。它是通過在鹽水中煮沸新鮮的檸檬並經天然乾燥,直到內部變黑。外觀從棕褐色變成黑色。
USE Black limes are usually used in legume, seafood or meat dishes. They are pierced, peeled or crushed before adding them to the dish. After cooking they become softer and edible. They can also be powdered and added to rice dishes. Powdered black lime is also used as an ingredient in Gulf-…

為何冰箱冷凍室非得是零下18度?

為何冰箱冷凍室非得是零下18度? 不少家庭的冰箱有led面板,可顯示冷藏室和冷凍室溫度。每次看到那個零下18℃,不少人,包括筆者在內就會禁不住提出一個小疑問:為什麼冷凍室溫度非得是零下18℃?最多零下1℃不就結冰了嗎?搞這麼低溫度實在是浪費電呢。

聰明如很多人是這樣推測的

百思不得其解,於是很多人,包括筆者在內就開始推測後面的機制了。冷凍室的零下18℃其實不費電,相反,它是節約電力的一個好措施。為何?

冰箱隔一段時間,內部溫度升高後,它就要啟動壓縮機,嗡嗡嗡的。頻繁啟動壓縮機不僅耗電,冰箱的壽命也會降低,還有就是很吵人。怎麼辦?簡單,先把冷凍室的溫度搞得低低的,比如零下18℃左右。


然後,冷凍室的冷氣往上走,來到冷藏室,如此,就能長時間保持冷藏室的溫度處於0到8℃以內了。

待冷凍室的冷氣散失過多,溫度升高到零下幾度時,再啟動冰箱的壓縮機把溫度再次降到零下18℃,如此,冰箱的啟動次數就變少了。

實際是這樣嗎?很遺憾,不是。

原因之一:不一樣的水

水到零度以下就結冰了,這是絕大多數人的認識。然而仔細一想,這不適用於冰箱的冷凍室。因為冷凍室存放的不是上百升礦泉水,而是各種各樣的食物。

食物中含有大量水這沒錯,但這些水同時含有大量的鹽、糖等物質。就像每1升海水中大約含有35克鹽,所以平均起來,要到零下1.33℃時海水才會結冰。

因此,要想把食物凍結,並不是溫度只要達到水的冰點就可以,得保證足夠低的溫度,食物中的水才能凍結,這很重要,因為食物中只要有液態水存在,這就等於是為各種細菌的繁殖提供了必備條件。

圖為牛肉薄片在不同溫度和不同時間內測得的牛肉中凍結水量的曲線。

當牛肉薄片的溫度為零下4℃時,只有70%的水分被凍結;溫度下降到零下9℃左右時,也還有3%的水分未凍結;即使牛肉薄片的溫度降低到零下18℃時,也不是100%的水分都被凍結住。

原因之二:嗜冷微生物

根據微生物對不同溫度的適應範圍,可將微生物分為三大類,嗜熱菌、嗜溫菌和嗜冷菌。在食物的冷藏和冷凍過程中,我們面對的「敵人」是嗜溫菌和嗜冷菌。

一般來說,能引起食物腐敗和食物致毒的嗜溫菌,在低於3 ℃情況下不產生毒素,當然,個別菌種例外。

而對於嗜冷菌,一般得在零下10 ℃到零下12 ℃時才會停止生長。

有的黴菌甚至要到零下15~零下18 ℃時才會停止生長。

瞧,我們以為,零下幾攝氏度後微生物就被殺死或停止繁殖了,但…