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火箭爐保溫器

火箭爐保溫器

Rocket mass heaters in a nutshell:
heat your home with 80% to 90% less wood
exhaust is nearly pure steam and CO2 (a little smoke at the beginning)
the heat from one fire can last for days
you can build one in a day and half
rocket stove mass heaterfolks have built them spending less than $20
the verbose details on rocket mass heaters: This could be the cleanest and most sustainable way to heat a conventional home. Some people have reported that they heat their home with nothing more than the dead branches that fall off the trees in their yard. And they burn so clean, that a lot of sneaky people are using them illegally, in cities, without detection.
When somebody first told me about rocket mass heaters, none of it made sense. The fire burns sideways? No smoke? If a conventional wood stove is 75% efficient, doesn't that mean the most wood you could possibly save is something like 25%? How do you have a big hole right over the fire and not have the house fill with smoke? I was skeptical.
rocket mass heaterAnd then I saw one in action. The fire really does burn sideways. The exhaust is near room temperature - and very clean. The smoke doesn't come back up because a huge amount of air is getting sucked into the wood hole. Neat! I sat on one that had not had a fire in it for 24 hours - it was still hot!
how it works:
rocket mass heater completeThe sticks stand straight up. Only the bottom ends of the sticks burn. The fire burns sideways. Since the heat riser is insulated, it gets freaky hot. This causes a strong convective current. When the hot gasses hit the barrel, it gives off a lot of heat, which cools the gasses which get much smaller and easier to push around. The gasses that exit are usually just carbon dioxide and steam.
The real magic happens with the heat riser. The strong convective current is what makes the air get sucked in through the wood feed so that the fire burns sideways and the smoke doesn't come out. It is also the place where it gets so hot that all of the smoke is burned.
rocket mass heater planHere (right) is a much better image showing the mighty power of the insulated heat riser, reburning the smoke and powering the whole system.
The first picture below represents the most thorough rocket mass heater design I have ever seen. Followed by the rocket mass heater that was created from that design. These are both the products of the leaders in rocket mass heater innovation, Ernie and Erica Wisner, who have built more than 700 rocket mass heaters.

rocket mass heater vs. conventional wood stove


rocket mass heater house
火箭爐保溫器生熱無煙
conventional wood stove
傳統柴爐有煙無熱
I've now given presentations and taught people how to make these. The question I am most often asked is: "If my current wood stove is 75% efficient, it seems the most room for improvement is about 25%. But you say you can heat a home with a tenth of the wood. Isn't that claiming that a rocket mass heater is 750% efficient? Wouldn't 100% efficient be the maximum?" There are two ways to answer this.
    1) Measure the temperature and volume of the smoke leaving a conventional wood stove (very hot and a large volume) and compare that to the exhaust of a rocket mass heater (a little more than room temperature and a trickle). Far more heat stays inside with a rocket mass heater. 2) Let's do the math.
      a) A rating of "75% efficient" does not account for some of the heat that goes up the chimney to remove the smoke. The testing labs will use a number of either 14% or 16% for smoke going up the chimney. So the 75% number is actually 64%. Saying 75% is allowed and sells more wood stoves. b) The rating of 75% was the most efficient result experienced in a laboratory with experts trying to get the most efficient numbers. So while a wood stove might be able to achieve 75% efficiency in a lab, it rarely does in a home. An experienced wood stove operator will probably experience something more like 35%. Somebody using wet/green wood and shutting the dampers down a lot for a "slow burn" will probably experience something more like 5% efficiency (or less!) with a 75% efficient wood stove. Thus leaving a lot of room for improvement. Rocket mass heaters have no way to reduce the air flow for a slow, inefficient burn. An inexperienced wood burner will probably have a 90% efficient burn every time.
Another question is about creosote. In a conventional wood stove, under inefficient conditions, creosote can build up in the chimney and start a chimney fire. The "chimney" in the rocket stove is the same thing as the heat riser. The rocket stove is designed to have a controlled chimney fire every burn.
Here is Ernie talking about how replacing a conventional wood stove with a rocket mass heater and how he now uses 1/8 of the wood he used to use:



rocket mass heaters in action

When I first learned about rocket mass heaters, I desperately needed to see a video because what I was told was so .... different. There was nothing! So I now have lots of videos so people can see for themselves, the things that seem so new. This is just a few of the videos.
A short video making the rocket mass heater exhaust aspect really clear:
A general tour of 12 rocket mass heaters:
This second video is a day and a half workshop on building rocket mass heaters compressed into ten minutes:
My first attempt at building a rocket mass heater without somebody to guide me. This is an attempt at a semi-portable rocket mass heater. Plus a nice burn demo.



The latest from Ernie and Erica - complete with some innovations. This video focuses on how efficient a wood burning stove can be.




The leading innovators today on rocket mass heaters are Ernie and Erica Wisner. They have built over 700 rocket mass heaters and their recent designs are superior to the designs of systems five to ten years ago. They are the moderators for thewood burning stoves forum. If you like this sort of thing, then the next step is to buy one of these two designs:
wood burning stove book closeupwood burning stove bookAlthough a lot has happened since this book was written, this book still has a lot of good information. It has explanations on how this type of wood burning stove works in general. Rocket Mass Heater Book
Several people have been able to scrounge parts over several months so that the construction cost ends up near zero. Here are some of the materials you might want to look for, complete with links to be able to purchase them in case you cannot find them otherwise:
Here is another rocket mass heater workshop. This one is building the rocket mass heater into a greenhouse
Discussion thread at permies: greenhouse with a rocket mass heater


And this one shows the rocket mass heater barrel prep. Complete with an excellent demonstration of the rockety stuff - check out that smoke reburn!


Here is Ernie's conventional wood stove / rocket mass heater hybrid, which gives a lot of info on how a rocket mass heater can heat a space with 90% less wood than a conventional wood stove:


This is my grand video on my portable rocket mass heater. This features four huge innovations: a wood frame aesthetic (a bit rough, but the trail is now blazed for better wood workers); portable (can be taken apart and put on truck in less than an hour; can be taken off of a truck and built in a little over an hour); a heat riser that goes all the way to the ground instead of sitting on bricks; the thermal mass is a collection of pea gravel and river rock (that allows air to pass through) instead of cob. This video has a lot of details of construction.

rocket mass heater podcasts
As I was designing my portable rocket mass heater innovations, I called Ernie and Erica several times. After all, they know far more than I do. After the great Earth Day success I recorded a podcast with them. Not only to have a podcast loaded with rocket mass heater / rocket stove info, but to gloat a bit about the success of my innovation:
Later, I was creating another podcast which ended up being all about heating water - mostly with a rocket stove:
more on rocket mass heaters
rocket mass heater hot water thumbrocket mass heater cob thumb rocket mass heater long fire thumb underfloor heating yurt thumbunderfloor heating and hot water with a rocket mass heaterportable rocket mass heater

portable rocket mass heater thumb portable rocket mass heater thumb portable rocket mass heater thumb portable rocket heater thumb portable rocket mass heater missoula thumbportable rocket mass heater thumb portable rocket mass heater thumb underfloor heater bypass thumbunderfloor heating with a rocket mass heater - plus an exhaust bypassthe original rocket stove and butt warmer thread at permies
rocket stove and butt warmer thumb pretty rocket stove thumbrocket stove water heater thumb rocket stove hot water thumb rocket stove hot water vid thumb 

Come on out to the alternative energy forum to talk about rocket mass heaters, rocket stoves, wood heat, heating water, and gobs more stuff.

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蔬菜對溫度日照條件的要求

蔬菜對溫度日照條件的要求
全日照  8個小時日照 瓜類、茄果類、豆類、山藥、豆薯(地瓜)。番茄、黃瓜、茄子、辣椒等喜溫中、強光性
蔬菜夏秋季生產,玉米、青椒、西瓜、南瓜、西紅柿、茄子、芝麻、向日葵類。
其次是根莖類,如:馬鈴薯、甜菜、胡蘿蔔、白蘿蔔、甘藷、山藥等等。至少需半日照,才能生長,芋頭雖喜歡全日照,但比其他蔬菜耐蔭。 
需要中等光照大白菜、甘藍、芥菜、蒜、洋蔥。 

長日性蔬菜白菜、甘藍、芥菜、蘿蔔、胡蘿蔔、芹菜、菠菜、萵苣、蠶豆、豌豆、大蔥、洋蔥。

短日性蔬菜豇豆、扁豆、莧菜、空心菜。         

中光性蔬菜黃瓜、番茄、茄子、辣椒、菜豆

菜豆

菜豆喜溫暖,不耐高溫和霜凍。菜豆種子發芽的適溫為20-30℃;在40℃以上的高溫和10℃以下的低溫,種子不易發芽。幼苗生長適宜氣溫為18-25℃。花芽分化的適宜氣溫為20-25℃,過高或過低溫度易出現發育不完全的花蕾、落花。

菜豆對光照強度的要求較高。在適宜溫度條件下,光照充足則植株生長健壯,莖的節間短而分枝多,開花結莢比較多,而且有利於根部對磷肥的吸收。當光照強度減弱時,植株易徒長,莖的節間長,分枝少,葉質薄,而且開花結莢數少,易落花落莢。

菜豆根系強大,能耐一定程度乾旱,但喜中度濕潤土壤條件,要求水分供應適中,不耐澇。生長期適宜土壤濕度為田間最大持水量的60%-70%,空氣相對濕度以80%為宜。開花結莢期對水分最敏感,此期土壤乾旱對開花結莢有不良影響,開花數、結莢數及莢內種子數減少。土壤水分過大時,下部葉片黃化,早脫落。空氣濕度過大會引起徒長、結莢不良。

菜豆具有深根性和根瘤菌,對土壤的要求不甚嚴格,但仍以土層深厚肥沃、排水良好的輕砂壤土或粘質壤土為好。土壤過於粘重、低溫、排水和通氣不良則生長不良,炭疽病重。菜豆喜中性至微酸性土壤,適宜的土壤pH為5-7.0,其中以州6.2-6.8最適宜。菜豆最忌連作,生產中應實行2-3年輪作。

菜豆生育過程中,主要吸收鉀和氮較多,還要吸收一定量的磷和鈣,才能良好發育。結莢期吸收磷鉀量較大。磷鉀肥對菜豆植株的生長發育、根瘤菌的發育、花芽分化、開花結莢和種子的發育等均有影響。缺乏磷肥,菜豆嫩莢和種子的品質和產量就會降低。缺鈣,幼葉葉片捲曲,葉緣失綠和生長點死亡。缺硼,則根係不發達,影響根瘤菌固氮,使花和豆莢發育不良。 耐陰半陰(大概3-4小時日照) 應選擇耐陰的蔬菜種植,如萵…

何謂硝酸鹽

何謂硝酸鹽硝酸鹽是一種自然物質 硝酸鹽來自於氮素。氮素是植物生長必須的養分,植物有了氮素才會生長健康。而氮素是自然物質,空氣有有80%氮氣,下雨過後,氮素隨雨落下,存在大土壤裡。像森林一樣,通常植物殘體和落葉堆肥,就能一直循環使用大地中的氮素。而豆科植物更是固氮作物。如果作物採收過快,則需要施肥。

氮素怎麼會變成硝酸鹽? 氮素會被土壤中的細菌分解為硝酸鹽(硝化作用),植物吸收硝酸鹽,再把硝酸鹽製造成氨基酸與蛋白質。植物吸收的硝酸鹽,是在夜裡發生的,硝酸鹽得經過充分的日照,經過光合作用才能轉化為氨基酸與蛋白質。所以,胺基酸是在白天製造的。葉菜裡頭,一定會同時含有氨基酸與蛋白質、硝酸鹽。光合作用的(日照)時間長一些,硝酸鹽就會少一些。


為什麼硝酸鹽會過量? 
硝酸鹽來不及變成胺基酸有兩個原因。

第一,是光合作用不足(日照不夠),陰雨天不只是日照不足,天上(雨水)還會落下氮素,增加土壤中的氮素。避免陰雨天採收,或凌晨採收,傍晚採收最好。
第二,才是過度施肥,蔬菜裡含太多氮素。
從充分日照與適量施肥著手,就可讓硝酸鹽降低。對於葉菜類,儘量調整傍晚採收,讓蔬菜有充足日照行光合作用。

硝酸鹽是壞東西? 人體有80%以上的硝酸鹽,來自於蔬菜,尤其是葉菜類,難道它只對身體有害?
讓葉菜除了豐富的維生素之外,還含有硝酸鹽?
硝酸鹽並不可怕,而是進到身體裡頭,轉化成亞硝酸胺,才會致癌。亞硝酸胺在食道會造成食道癌、在胃部會造成胃癌。可是硝酸鹽是必須的健康成份,進到人體裡面,也會轉化成一氧化氮,殺死沙門氏菌、大腸桿菌,增加血液循環、增厚胃壁,減少細菌感染與潰瘍的發生。所以問題是阻斷亞硝酸胺的形成,增加一氧化氮的形成?

吃的不對,硝酸鹽變成壞東西 如果清楚蔬菜營養成分,就會明白大自然的神奇安排。怎麼讓硝酸鹽要變成一氧化氮?原來是維生素C&E,吃葉菜的時候,就會同時攝取到維生素C&E、硝酸鹽。所以吃新鮮的菜很重要,新鮮採收的菜才能留住維生素。洗菜的方式更重要,很多長輩習慣切完菜再洗、或者反覆戳洗葉片、或者一直泡水,維生素易溶於水,水都是綠色了,菜就沒維生素了。

是誰讓硝酸鹽要變成亞硝酸胺? 口腔跟胃內的細菌,會把硝酸鹽變成了亞硝酸鹽,亞硝酸鹽遇到了胺類,就會變成可怕的亞硝酸胺。我們的胃部裡怎麼會有胺類?哪些食物含有胺類?
像乾燥海產像鯖魚乾、鯷魚乾、蚵乾、蝦米乾、及魷魚乾,還有生鮮海產像…

水耕栽培

水耕栽培-精緻蔬菜生產技術之開發文/高德錚 為穩定台灣夏季蔬菜之產銷及提昇蔬菜之品質,使國人能享受既便宜又無農藥殘毒之清潔蔬菜,台中農改場在農委會及農林廳經費補助下正積極研究無土水耕栽培技術,希望發展出一套既可提供家庭主婦在公寓陽台上或屋頂上生產蔬菜,又可藉『植物工廠』年中無休地生產蔬菜。
如何『選擇無農藥殘毒之精緻蔬菜』的疑問一直困擾著家庭主婦,消費者常以菜葉上具有蟲孔者視為上品。事實上台灣位處亞熱帶,四季溫暖,媒介昆蟲及病菌生育世代繁盛下,若不能有效地抑制其族群之擴張,則無法達到經濟性之生產,因此過去二、三十年來大抵藉用噴灑農藥來防治病蟲害,作為增產之途徑。
歐美國家由於緯度較高,季節性溫差較大,農藥使用頻率遠低於台灣業者,其生產之蔬菜幾可生食,甚至臨近之日本國民每日生食萵苣、芹菜、紫蘇、高麗菜的生活習慣,常令人羨慕不已。我國之農業生產技術並不亞於日本,為何日本能,我們不能?
水耕栽培植物之構想是有歷史淵源的,早在紀元前數百年前古埃及之楔形文字遺跡中即可發現有植物生長於水中的圖形,而世界七大不可思議的傳說中『巴比崙的空中花園』,亦常讓人百思不解。其實土壤為天然的栽培床,她為植物之母,固持著植物,及提供各種生育必需之元素。一旦不用土壤作為栽培介質,若能人為的固持植物根部及提供各種營養成分,則在水中生長植物又有何不可呢?以日本筑波萬國博覽會上展示之一株活生生地,預計可結一萬二千個果實之水耕番茄,可了解水耕技術之奧妙。水耕無土栽培因果菜類及葉菜類生理習性之分野,在植株育苗、栽培床構造及養液循環系統之設計上略有不同,目前本場已成功地各開發一套水耕栽培技術,在240平方公尺之溫室中以岩棉栽培法來培植番茄、胡瓜、草莓及木瓜等果菜,並以浮根式栽培法來生產小白菜、萵苣、山(水)芹菜及菠菜等葉菜。
據目前研究成果顯示養液蔬菜生產技術之優點為
(1)縮短生育期,增加年收穫數;
(2)週年性工業化生產;
(3)無農藥污染,
(4)迴避土壤病蟲害及連作障害;
(5)施肥合理化;
(6)省勞力;
(7)輕勞動力;
(8)不懼農村老齡化。岩棉栽培法 栽培介質:岩棉(rockwool)為人造之礦石纖維(圖一),與坊間之石棉(asbestos)不同,石棉可由天然礦石中開採取得,岩棉為玄武岩或輝綠岩等礦石在1,600℃下熔融後,利用高速離心設備使岩漿形成微粒液滴,諸液滴因高速離心運動露於空氣中…