Low Technology Application:
Low-tech aquaponics involve the simultaneous cultivation of an aquatic species and plants in a system. There is a reduced need for fertilizer because the waste of the aquatic organisms are used by the plants as nutrients. This type of aquaponics has been historically implemented for thousand of years in China and other places that have large swampy tracts of land. The most commonly implemented one is a Tilapia-Azolla-Rice culture. Tilapia are one of the most efficient species of fish and can put on close to one pound of fish flesh per pound of fish food they eat; the Azolla is a floating aquatic macrophyte that acts as supplemental food to the fish. The rice can be harvested directly for human consumption. This solution requires investment in education; training the local farmers is the key to its successful implementation. The method holds particular promise where conventional agriculture is not viable due to the excess of swampland and lack of soil.

High Technology Application:

Aquaponics eliminates the need for expensive fertilizers while reducing the environmental impact of growing fish, as the plants naturally filter the water as they take in nutrients (Luke's Mission Aquaponics, n.d.). In addition, growing fish using aquaponic systems requires less water and land than traditional methods of production.This solution will provide malnourished people with a source of protein, a nutrient that is crucially important for maintaining a healthy body, but is often unavailable to people in impoverished areas ("World Hunger Education," n.d.).

Above is a schematic depicting the basic components required for a successful aquaponics system. Fish effluent is first transferred to clarifiers before passing through filter tanks containing nitrifying and ammonifying bacteria that mineralize the waste. The filtered waste is then used on the plants as fertilizer. By the time the water has circulated through the plant growing troughs, it will be completely filtered and ready for transfer back to the fish tanks. This system can be adapted for large-scale farming as well as small-scale farming. However, the technology is still very much in development.

A model based on the experimental aquaponics site at the University of Virgin Islands may be adapted for use in areas where water and land are scarce. The UVI aquaponic system covers a total land area of only 0.05 ha. Between 2002 and 2004, UVI experimented with various food crops, including okra and basil. The highest annual yields for basil and okra were 25 kg/m^3 and 13.37 kg/m^3, yields much greater than those from traditional field production (Rakocy, Bailey, Shultz, & Thoman, n.d.). More importantly, the annual average production of fish was 4.16 mt for Nile tilapia and 4.78 mt for red tilapia between 2002 and 2004. This amounts to approximately 214, 4 ounce servings of fish per year("Fish, Tilapia, Cooked,," n.d.).Each serving of tilapia produced provides around 100 calories and over 50% of the daily value of protein recommended by the World Food Program. ("Protein," n.d.). Thus, this technology can be especially effective in combating hunger and protein deficiency, the most dangerous form of malnutrition (World Hunger and Poverty, 2010).

In order to successfully implement this solution in developing countries, a sufficient electronic infrastructure must be in operation. Growing fish using aquaponics is less costly than growing fish using monoculture due to the reduced cost of filtration infrastructure and management personnel (Graber & Todt, 2002). However, the system must be carefully maintained to produce a good harvest. Although this can be done manually, it is much easier to continuously monitor parameters such as water temperature, oxygen levels, or pH levels with an electronic system. Electricity is also required for the sump pump and for the control of water flow in and out of the various system components. Once this complication has been resolved, the construction of the actual system is fairly easy, requiring commonplace materials and minimal labor. Finally, before the aquaponics system can be implemented, persons must be trained to plant, harvest, and properly maintain the system.

Aquaponic systems do not require a lot of time to implement if the system is designed properly beforehand. The system at UVI, for example, started development in the late 1990s and was successful by the beginning of the 2000s after the major design problems were ironed out. We expect most of the aquaponic systems to be operating at full capacity within the first 10 years.




全日照  8個小時日照 瓜類、茄果類、豆類、山藥、豆薯(地瓜)。番茄、黃瓜、茄子、辣椒等喜溫中、強光性









菜豆生育過程中,主要吸收鉀和氮較多,還要吸收一定量的磷和鈣,才能良好發育。結莢期吸收磷鉀量較大。磷鉀肥對菜豆植株的生長發育、根瘤菌的發育、花芽分化、開花結莢和種子的發育等均有影響。缺乏磷肥,菜豆嫩莢和種子的品質和產量就會降低。缺鈣,幼葉葉片捲曲,葉緣失綠和生長點死亡。缺硼,則根係不發達,影響根瘤菌固氮,使花和豆莢發育不良。 耐陰半陰(大概3-4小時日照) 應選擇耐陰的蔬菜種植,如萵…


◎飼養與管理的重點 只要不是劇烈的變化,錦鯉很容易適應各水溫水質等環境的變化。並不是沒有大庭園就無法飼養,有人甚至在二樓陽台或頂樓陽台造水池飼養。然而我們是欣賞錦鯉雄壯豪邁之氣,因此水池盡量寬闊為宜,以水深1.2m以上為理想。魚池必須有底水排出,過濾循環等設備。用水不一定要取地下水,自來水也可以飼養。
良好的魚餌不會崩壞鯉的體型。餌的量也是在夏天水溫 高的時候,訂定停餌期間,才是整體來說使鯉變胖最重要的秘訣。如果還是想 要給很多餌的話,要增加循還量。錦鯉在水溫超過28度的時候,應給與相當於 鯉全體重量3%的餌。水溫25度時1.5%,水溫20度時0.3%,16度以下則要停止鯉餌,這就是鯉魚長得強壯的要訣。連續不斷地給鯉餌的話,引起內臟障礙, 而影響到鯉不會長壯,甚至導至體型的變歪。


蝶豆花 原產拉丁美洲的蝶豆花是一種典型的熱帶蔓藤植物,全年盛開。
butterfly pea,拉丁語叫:Clitoria ternatea,泰語叫Dok Anchan
營養價值 蝶豆花具有豐富的維他命A,C和E, 而且可以提高免疫力, 幫助和促進皮膚的彈力和骨膠原, 同時還具有補腦,促進腦的活力,防止胃痛,抗憂郁、抗壓力、鎮靜、止驚厥、緩和情緒等天然保健功效。
食用價值 蝶豆花的可食部位是葉、花及嫩莢。較幼嫩的葉片及盛開的花朵,亦可拿來煮湯、油炸等。用嫩芽來炒肉絲或煮熟後食用,都十分可口。蝶豆花的葉及花的萃取液,可當作純天然的食品染料。