一個觀念、兩份報告影響人類的未來


一個觀念、兩份報告影響人類的未來。

Permaculture-letting mother earth point the way


Permaculture stresses the need for compatible co-existence between man and nature, a philosophy which has come to enjoy strong support in Taiwan. Shown here is Yamana Garden, located on Mt. Yangming.
Publication Date:02/01/2011
Source: Taiwan Panorama
By (Kuo Li-chuan/photos by Jimmy Lin/tr. by David Smith)
1987年,聯合國發布「我們共同的未來」報告,提出人類永續發展的概念,將「永續發展」定義為「能夠滿足當代的需要,且不致危害到未來世代滿足其需要的發展過程。」
2008年底,聯合國糧農組織又在一份「糧食安全」的報告中指出,小島國家必須儘速建立糧食系統對氣候變遷的適應能力,以避免未來農漁牧業可能遭到的巨大破壞與經濟損失。

這兩份報告讓很多國家明瞭,開發自給自足的食物來源,既可減少外匯支出,也是確保國家安全的基本要件。處在天災不斷、水資源與糧食危機的今天,無論是「永續發展」或「開發自給自足的食物來源」,對島國台灣來說,都是當務之急。
其實,早在聯合國的報告之前,1975年澳洲學者比爾.默立森就提出了permaculture(樸門永續設計概念),他將permanent(永恆)」、agriculture(農業)和culture(文化)三字的縮寫結合成樸門一字,強調作物栽培必須建構在人類和自然環境和平相處的永續性上,如今看來這似乎是個魚與熊掌可兼得的解決方案,已在全球120個國家推廣。
經由媒體引介,1998年樸門理念也在台灣播下種子,經過十幾年的耕耘,這些散落在台灣的小種子,是否已經發芽生根了?

走進位於陽明山紗帽路的野蔓園,這座成立於2005年、落實樸門永續設計理念的園地,佔地約1,000坪,入口處的一小片防風帶就是「食物森林」,負責人亞曼解釋:「食物森林就是模擬森林演替,配合時間、空間、物種的層次搭配,在不需太多維護人力的情況下,自然產出所需食物。」仔細一算,從最上層的桃花心木、土肉桂、香蕉、棕櫚,中層的櫻花、川七、百香果、梅子、竹子、桂花到最下層的羊奶頭、樹薯、芋頭、薑黃、七葉蘭、地瓜葉等,共有十幾種作物,亞曼強調,一座典型的「食物森林」,甚至可以培育超過百種以上的水果、堅果、蔬菜、穀物等作物,同時成為野生動物的棲息地。

One core concept and two reports have brought a shift in the future of mankind.
In 1987, the United Nations issued a report entitled Our Common Future, which put forward the concept of sustainable human development and defined sustainable development as "meeting the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs."
At the end of 2008, the UN Food and Agriculture Organization pointed out in The State of Food Insecurity in the World 2008 that small island nations must act quickly to ensure the capability of their food systems to respond to climate change, lest their agriculture, fisheries, and livestock industries be severely debilitated in the future.
These two reports nudged many nations to a clear understanding that developing self-sufficient food sources can reduce foreign exchange expenditures while heading off problems in a key aspect of national security. Given today's frequent natural disasters as well as water and food crises, "sustainable development" and "development of self-sustaining food sources" are pressing tasks for a small island nation like Taiwan.
Long before the UN reports, in fact, the term "permaculture" (a portmanteau from the words "permanent," "agriculture," and "culture") had been put forward by Australian naturalist Bill Mollison and others to stress the need to grow crops in a manner that allows for compatible co-existence between man and nature. It is looking today like permaculture offers us the opportunity to "have our cake and eat it too." Efforts are now afoot in 120 different countries to implement the concept.
With news media helping to introduce the idea of permaculture in Taiwan, projects got underway here in 1998. What sort of success have we seen?
Devotees of permaculture established Ya-mana Garden in 2005 on Sha-mao Road, north of Tai-pei on Mt. Yang-ming, where they put their ideas into practice on a plot of about 1,000 ping (3,300 square meters). A windbreak at the entrance functions as a "food forest." The idea was explained to me by the proprietor, Yam-man (actual name: Tang Yan-han): "The food forest relies on the phenomenon of forest succession-the natural replacement of plant or animal species in an area over time-to produce the food we need without calling for too much maintenance on our part."

The food forest at Yamana Garden comprises a canopy layer, understory, and forest floor, with different types of vegetation producing a dozen or more crops. Yamman stresses that more than 100 different kinds of fruit, nut, vegetable, and grain crops can be grown in a typical food forest, which can also provide a habitat for wildlife.
(right) Yamana Garden is run by Yamman, who left the rat race some years back after the pressures of the work world left him with chronic illnesses. After learning about permaculture, he threw himself headlong into it. His lifestyle is now both healthy and environmentally friendly.

概念1:食物森林,共榮共存

「食物森林」讓四十多歲的亞曼找到人生的新目標。
原來從事建築業、衛星電視行業的亞曼,因工作壓力大,一天要抽3包菸、嚼好幾包檳榔,體重更曾破100公斤,各種文明病、慢性病纏身。燃燒生命、成就工作的他,換來的是健康亮起紅燈,嚴重過敏讓他決定離開職場,為了找回健康他曾遠赴中國武漢學中醫、到印度學習自然療法,2005年接觸「樸門」後,決定成立「野蔓園」,「因為人要健康,前提是環境要健康。」
除了「食物森林」,亞曼也採用南美洲原住民流傳的「三姐妹」耕作方式,就是將玉米、南瓜、豆科植物這3種作物種在一起,以發揮共生共榮的效果。種法是等玉米長到15公分左右再種下豆科植物,玉米提供豆科植物攀爬的支架,豆科植物可提供氮肥,並將氮轉換為植物所需的養分,由於玉米就是需要大量氮肥的作物,在地面攀爬生長的南瓜,大大的葉片是最佳覆蓋物,可抑制雜草生長並發揮保護土壤的功能。
若細究樸門在台灣的發展,其實最早引介這個新觀念的人,是一位美籍的台灣女婿。
從小就對可食野生植物、追蹤動物等深深著迷的孟磊,就讀美國威斯康辛州立大學主修植物學,1991年因學校與東吳大學的文化交流計畫,踏上台灣土地,學習中文,3年後認識妻子江慧儀,婚後定居台灣。
當時他們住在新北市郊區的一棟公寓,無法觸摸泥土的生活,讓他很不快樂,1998年在加拿大籍友人建議下,動身前往澳洲接受樸門課程,返台後在北投平等里租地種植農作物。
孟磊住家的屋頂花園一隅,有水塔、木瓜樹、四季豆、山藥、廚餘桶,木瓜樹為水塔及其他更小的植物遮蔭,水塔為四周的環境降溫、擋風,並反射太陽光給木瓜樹。當山藥成功攀爬上木瓜樹後,四季豆便藉山藥之助往上生長,廚餘桶則為這個小生態抵擋強風,形成較陰涼的微氣候。
孟磊解釋,「森林」二字,總讓人誤以為要將作物種在山坡地,其實「食物森林」可因地制宜,例如容易積水的土地可以用「香蕉樹圈」,就是將數棵到數十棵不等的香蕉種成一個圓圈,在樹圈中間直接進行堆肥。「利用香蕉根系擅長吸收水分與養分的特性,一方面吸收土地上的積水,另方面堆肥的養分也可直接供給香蕉樹。」
而在香蕉的間隙與外圍,還可以種上地瓜葉、芋頭、豆科植物,除了藉著香蕉大大的葉片遮去雜草生長所需的陽光抑制繁衍外,也可使種下的蔬菜小苗不致遭到過多的日曬雨淋損傷。

Food forests and shared prosperity

At age 40, Yamman found a new life goal in the "food forest" concept.
Before then, he had worked in construction and satellite television. The high-pressure lifestyle had him smoking three packs of cigarettes and chewing several packets of betel nut per day, and his weight soared to over 100 kilos at one point. His quest for success had put his health in danger. Suffering from severe allergies, he decided he had to leave his job and take drastic steps to regain his health. He went to mainland China to study traditional Chinese medicine in Wu-han, and naturopathy in India. After learning about permaculture in 2005, he decided to establish Yamana Garden because "for people to be healthy, we must first have a healthy environment."
In addition to the food forest, Yamman also adopted the "three sisters" crop system originated by indigenous peoples in South America, who plant corn, squash, and beans together in a way that allows for symbiosis between them. The corn is planted first, and once it grows to about 15 centimeters they plant beans, which climb up the cornstalks. The beans provide nitrogen, which is needed in large quantities by the corn. The squash, in the meantime, spreads along the ground, where its large leaves make for the perfect mulch, blocking the sunlight, inhibiting the growth of weeds, and protecting the soil.
The concept of permaculture was first introduced in Taiwan by an American married to a local woman.
Peter Morehead, a major in botany at Wisconsin University who since childhood had enjoyed identifying edible plants and tracking wildlife, came to Soochow University in 1991 as an exchange student to study Chinese. Within three years he had met and married -Jiang Huiyi and settled down for the long haul in Taiwan.
The couple lived back then in an apartment in New Taipei City. The concrete-bound existence grated on him, and so in 1998 at the suggestion of a Canadian friend he decided to take a course in permaculture in Australia. After returning to Taiwan he rented out a plot in Beitou and started planting crops there.
In a corner of the rooftop garden at Morehead's home, there are to be found a water tank, some papaya trees, and a compost bin. The papaya trees provide shade for the water tank and smaller plants. The water tank lowers the temperature, serves as a windbreak for the surrounding environment, and reflects sunlight back to the papaya trees. The yams he planted there climb up the papaya trees, and green beans planted subsequently are now climbing their way up the yams. The compost bin, meanwhile, shelters the garden from the wind and creates a cooler microenvironment.
Morehead explains that when people hear the word "forest" they get the wrong idea that you're talking about planting crops in the hills, but in fact a food forest can be modified to suit any particular environment. Where water tends to collect, for example, you can plant a ring of banana trees numbering anywhere from a few to several dozen, and then carry out composting within the ring. "The banana root system absorbs a lot of water, and the compost pile fertilizes the trees."
Practitioners of permaculture take advantage of the natural properties of the environment to create complementarity between plants and animals, and to achieve diversity. Besides taking human needs into account, permaculture crops are also grown in such a manner as to provide for the needs of insects and other life forms. Shown here is a permaculture farm in Miaoli County.

概念2:生物多樣性

這種利用不同植物和環境的特性,讓它們彼此互相照應,省去肥料也省去除草人力的作法,在「樸門」屢見不鮮。
走進宜蘭壯圍鄉、台灣第一屆樸門認證課程(PDC)學員楊文獻成立的「加留沙埔農場」,這片距離太平洋和蘭陽溪口都不遠的貧瘠沙埔地,既難保水又面臨強勁的東北季風,楊文獻在農地邊界利用原有樹種和巧思,築起一道兼具防風和食物森林的綠籬,種上榕樹、蓮霧、香蕉,下方則有黃槿、南薑、金針、葛鬱金(俗稱「粉薯」)等作物。
「設計植物社群時,需考量遮陽、落葉、防風、固氮、礦物質、棚架、提供棲息地等各種功能和需求,」楊文獻說。
這片佔地約6,000坪的農場,有超過100種以上的作物,他說,生物越豐富多元,就代表各種可能性,只要妥善規劃,就可以在不同時間收成,沒有賣完的作物加工製成酵素或醋就不會囤積。「如果只是種植單一作物或是少數幾種,因為產量多就要考慮銷售問題,所以一開始就朝向生物多樣性、多種類,以及多層次種法。」
講到多層次,楊文獻堪稱發揮到淋漓盡致,他在農地邊緣插上一根根細竹竿,原以為是豆科植物的支架,冬陽照拂下,只見地域性極強的冬候鳥棕背伯勞佔據竹竿頂端,時而俯衝飛下農地啄起菜圃裡的毛蟲。原來,楊文獻是利用一根根細竹竿提供鳥類棲息之餘,鳥也可幫忙除蟲。

Biodiversity

Setting up this sort of complementarity between plants and the environment so as to dispense with fertilizers and reduce the need for weeding is done all the time in permaculture.
Yang Wenxian, who was in the group that attended the first permaculture design course (PDC) ever held in Taiwan, runs a permaculture farm in Yilan -County's Zhuangwei Township in nearly barren sands near the Pacific Ocean and the mouth of the Lanyang River. The soil holds water poorly, and is buffeted by the incessant northeast monsoons of winter. Yang decided to use the trees already growing there to work out a cleverly designed "green fence" that serves simultaneously as a windbreak and food forest. He has planted ficus trees, wax apple trees, and bananas, and then beneath the trees cultivated sea hibiscus (Hibiscus tiliaceus), various types of ginger, day lilies, and arrowroot.
"Designing a plant community, you have to consider shade, falling leaves, windbreak, nitrogen fixation, minerals, the arbor, and other factors," says Yang.
He grows over 100 different crops on his plot of some 6,000 ping, and notes that where there is a great diversity of flora and fauna, with a bit of planning you can harvest the different crops on a staggered schedule. What isn't sold can be used to make yeast or vinegar, so there's no need to store it anywhere. "If you've just got one or a few crops, then the volume of production means you've got to worry about selling it. That's why from the very start I wanted a diversity of crops and many different planting methods."
When designing a permaculture plant community, one must grow short-term, medium-term, and long-term crops together so they can complement each other. Shown here is the farm of Yang Wenxian in Yilan County.

概念3:惱人農事,借力使力

一般來說,傳統農人會將種菜、種樹、養雞這3種生產活動分開,但樸門鼓勵盡量整合所有元素,讓每個元素的功能、需求和產物互惠互補。
孟磊舉例說,雞能提供蛋白質、肥料(雞糞),還會幫忙除草,正是菜園所需要的,而菜園也能提供雜草、小蟲等食物給雞吃;果樹也需要雞的肥料,雞吃掉落的果實又可幫忙防止果蠅對果樹的危害。
另外,除不盡的雜草,也很令人困擾。孟磊曾建議朋友用覆蓋物來保護土壤時,對方卻又苦惱於不知要去哪裡找覆蓋物,「我們不妨換個角度思考『雜草』的功能,若把雜草當成源源不絕的覆蓋物來源,那麼台灣大量使用除草劑的問題就可迎刃而解。」
雜草看似無益還會吸收土壤的養分,其實它可以保護土地還會製造肥料,除草時只要將地面上的部分割除,留下根部,原本旺盛的根為了生存,會將多餘的養分釋放出來。此時,作物正好可以吸收這些養分,而且草在行光合作用的過程中,會固定空氣中某些特定元素,能讓土壤的微量元素含量更豐富,這是大自然相當微妙的共生互動循環。
雜草還有一個重要的功能,就是加速生態演替,借助雜草之力,收集陽光、水和養分,並將其轉化為有機質進入土壤。土壤中的有機質功效很多,像是有助於平衡溫度、PH值、養分、濕度和土壤生物相;另外也提供蜥蜴、瓢蟲、蜜蜂等生物居住的條件。

Let your crops do the work

Generally speaking, conventional farmers have carried out their vegetable planting, tree tending, and chicken raising as completely separate operations, but permaculture encourages integration wherever possible so that different functions, needs, and products can complement each other.
Peter Morehead points out, for example, that raising chickens provides protein and fertilizer (chicken droppings), and the animals help control weeds, which is exactly what is needed in a vegetable plot, while the vegetable plot provides weeds, bugs, and other things for the chickens to eat. Fruit trees also need fertilizer from the chickens. Chickens in turn feed on fallen fruit, controlling the flies that would otherwise harm the fruit crop.
The endless task of weeding is a big bane for farmers. Morehead once suggested that a friend use mulch to protect the soil, but the person wondered where to find mulch, to which Morehead responded: "Why don't we look at the function of 'weeds' from a different perspective? If we look at weeds as an inexhaustible supply of mulch, we can solve Taiwan's problem of heavy pesticide use in a single stroke."
Weeds seem at a glance to benefit no one while competing for soil nutrients, but in fact they can protect the soil and produce fertilizer, and when weeding, it is enough to chop off what's aboveground while leaving the roots intact, which will then release the now unused nutrients they contain. These nutrients are absorbed by the crop. Moreover, photosynthesis fixes certain needed elements from the air, which make their way into the soil.
Weeds also have another important function-to accelerate ecological succession by absorbing sunlight, water, and nutrients, then converting them into organic matter which goes into the soil.
Hardy, fast-spreading sedge grasses can give farmers headaches, but they do an excellent job of anchoring soil that is prone to erosion.

概念4:水資源危機,收集解套

水,更是種植最重要的元素之一。台灣雖名列全球降雨量前茅的地區,但因台灣的溪流短而急促,加上高度水泥化的開發模式,造成後天保水不力,導致雨水快速流入大海,很難留住。
水資源匱乏已被聯合國列入最容易被忽略的環境危機,非洲辛巴威、尚比亞等國,甚至因為沒有潔淨的飲用水,爆發霍亂、瘧疾等傳染病,然而都會區便利的生活,卻讓人很容易忽略水源得來不易的事實。
「降雨量多,表示台灣有收集雨水的潛力。」孟磊說,若從高樓往下看,會發現台灣有很多鐵皮斜屋頂,這些屋頂多半扮演遮陽和防漏水的功能,但若利用斜屋頂收集雨水,然後用來澆花、種菜、清潔,或將雨水轉入生態池,用來過濾生活廢水,都可提升都會區的水源自主性。
亞曼也有個在生活中利用種樹進行「小水庫」設計的構思。例如一棵大榕樹可以儲存5、6噸的水,小一點的樹種也有3、4噸,這些樹木根部儲存的水分,可以維持土壤的濕潤與肥沃,或是觀察居家附近的雨水流向,將雨水導向乾旱之地,讓荒地因水的引入增加有機質,漸成一方良田。

Water crises

Water is of course the single most import agricultural input. Taiwan has one of the highest precipitation rates in the world, but its rivers run a short and rapid course to the sea, and our nation's "concrete-happy" model of economic development has hurt the hydrologic cycle, reducing the island's capacity to store water.
Water shortages have been identified by the UN as one of the most easily overlooked of crises. In Zimbabwe and Zambia, the lack of clean water has triggered outbreaks of cholera and malaria. The convenience of urban living, however, makes it easy to forget how difficult it is to secure water resources.
"High precipitation here means that Taiwan has excellent potential for capturing rainwater," says Morehead, who points out that anyone looking out over the city from a tall building will see a vast number of tin roofs, most of which were put up to protect buildings from the sun and rain, but if roof runoff were captured and used to water flowers, grow vegetables, and wash things, or if the water were diverted to settling pools for use in filtration of household wastewater, cities would be more self-sufficient in their water supply.
Yamman uses trees as mini-reservoirs in and of themselves. A banyan tree can store five or six tons of water, or perhaps three or four tons if it's a smaller type of tree. The water stored in the tree roots can keep the surrounding soil moist and fertile. He also points out that one can observe the path of rain runoff near home and divert water to places where water is lacking, thus adding to the total organic matter on land that was relatively barren before. The eventual result can be a very productive plot of land.
Along the border of his farm, Yang Wenxian has put up a food forest that doubles as a windbreak. Shown here is a type of Alpinia ginger that grows in the understory and comes ready for harvesting in the dead of winter.
Local foods, community development
The concept of permaculture is not tough to grasp, but how do you actually put it into practice?
One of the best ways is to consume locally grown foods and be a part of the local economy-to take part, in other words, in community-supported agriculture. The idea is that local farms should not have to expend huge quantities of energy selling to far-off foreign markets, but instead should provide their output for consumption by local residents.
The community agriculture idea of keeping food miles to less than a certain maximum was first promoted in the 1960s in Germany, Switzerland, and Japan. In Taiwan, the biggest force to emerge in support of the concept has been the Homemakers' Union and Foundation and its collective buying scheme.
The importance of proper eating to good health is the common thread running through the Korean emphasis on eating local foods, the Japanese preference for eating food in season, and the Chinese precept, put forward in the Yellow Emperor's Canon of Medicine, that "he heals best who prevents disease from occurring in the first place."
Yamana Garden, for example, seeks to be self-sustaining. Any extra food is put to use in courses offered there. In the dark, cold first lunar month they make bean curd cheese and red vinasse, in the second month they incubate seedlings, in the third month they take the students out to plant the seedlings, in the fourth month they pick mulberries to make fruit vinegar, in the fifth month, after the Dragon Boat Festival has passed and the daylight hours have become sufficient, they start making black bean soy sauce. And so it goes, throughout the year.
Yamana Garden uses its own natural yeast to bake bread in an oven crafted out of silty clay from an ancient Taipei lake bed. The oven is fired by burning branches pruned from trees on the property, thus keeping all the consumption local.

概念5:在地飲食,社區改造

樸門理念不難理解,問題是如何具體實踐?
最好的方法之一,就是倡導「在地飲食、在地經濟」,也就是落實「社區支持農業」——在地農場的作物不應耗費大量能源、遠渡重洋外銷,而應由在地居民消費。
這種將食物里程控制在一定距離內的社區農業,1960年代就開始在德國、瑞士、日本等國推動,而台灣最具代表性的當屬主婦聯盟基金會發起的「共同購買」。
就養生觀點而言,不論是韓國倡導的「身土不二」(土生土長的在地食物對身體最好)、日本飲食遵循的「旬食」(當令食物),還是《黃帝內經》所說,「上醫醫未病之病」,都強調食物與身體健康不可分割的重要性,因為取自居家附近依節令生產的作物,最符合體質所需。
例如「野蔓園」就以自給自足為原則,多餘的作物就拿來當DIY教材,課程依循自然的腳步:陰冷的1月做豆腐乳及紅糟、2月育秧苗、3月春耕時帶著學員下田插秧、4月採桑椹做果醋、5月端午之後日曬充足開始做黑豆蔭油……。
成果:產量超過慣行農法
2007年起,亞曼在宜蘭與朋友發起「吃自己種的米.留一塊乾淨土」計畫。
他說服當地小地主提供耕地,再委託田間管理員協助照顧,以自然有機方式栽種,以減少米糧運送過程的碳污染。
2008年他在陽明山陽金公路上租下一塊稱為「半嶺」的梯田,開始他的田園生活。從用廢木料蓋農舍,到接水、墾地,不斷嘗試錯誤、學習、請教,才有今天一方符合樸門理念的農作物。
亞曼比較,慣行農法1分地的稻穀年產量約600公斤,同樣面積的地,以樸門理念耕種的「半嶺米」,第1年產量300公斤,第2年產量400公斤,到了第3年則可達500∼550公斤。由於「半嶺米」完全採人工插秧、收割、日曬,而且1甲地只需1名田間管理員照顧,省下了肥料與農藥後,成本遠低於慣行農法,產值卻是傳統慣行農法的1至2倍,且只需耕作半年,真正做到「對地球有益」。
其次,亞曼也提供「換工」方式,鼓勵年輕人勇於嘗試自食其力、自給自足生活。
十幾年前從商場退下,選擇農耕生活,曾參與有機農業推廣種子培訓的楊文獻,2005年移居宜蘭壯圍鄉務農後,自2009年開始和當地採用友善土地農法的小農組成「大宅院友善市集」,每個月有兩個周末在宜蘭縣冬山鄉銷售當季蔬果和農產加工品。當地社區小農也和學校合作,農民把所種的蔬菜直接賣給學校,因為知道供應對象是國家未來的主人翁,採用的農法更自然有機,學校則透過帶領學童參觀農場,讓他們知道食物的來源與農民工作的辛苦,達到「在地飲食」和「生態教育」的目的。

Outproducing conventional farms

Since 2007, Yamman has been working in Yilan with friends to push a project to "eat local food and leave the land clean."
He persuaded some small landowners there to provide him with plots to be tended with assistance from field managers. They use organic farming methods to reduce carbon emissions generated by rice transport.
In 2008 he bought Ban-ling, a parcel of terraced fields along the Yang-ming-shan-Jin-shan Highway, and commenced a life in the country. He used cast-off lumber to build needed structures, rigged up a water piping system, and tilled the land. Now, after much trial and error, he is turning out crops in a manner consistent with the principles of permaculture.
He says that one tenth of a hectare of land (1,000 square meters) can produce about 600 kilograms of rice per year using conventional farming methods. On the same land area at Banling, he managed to turn out 300 kg in the first year, 400 kg the second year, and 500-550 kg in the third year. Rice is -planted, harvested, and set out to dry completely by hand at Banling. Because only one manager is needed for each hectare, and they don't use fertilizers or chemicals, costs are thus much lower than with conventional farming, while crop value is two to three times higher. The land need only be farmed for half a year, moreover. He's truly making his money in a way that is good for the earth.
After leaving the rat race over a decade ago to take up farming, Yang took part in a program to train people like himself in organic farming techniques. He moved to Zhuangwei Township in Yi-lan in 2005, and in 2009 got together with other small farmers engaged in land-friendly farming to establish a farmers' market. The group started selling in-season items two weekends per month in nearby Dong-shan Township. They soon started selling their vegetables directly to schools. Knowing that their food was for schoolchildren inspired them to be all the more rigorous with their organic farming techniques, and the schools for their part began taking students on field trips to the farms, where they learned about where food comes from and how difficult it is to be a farmer.
Eco-toilets are designed to return to nature that which came from nature in the first place. The toilet shown here is located at a permaculture farm in Miaoli County.

願景:小種苗開花結果

來台已25年、台灣第一屆樸門認證課程學員的美籍人士唐敏表示,「『設計』(DESIGN)這個字具有特殊意義,表示對各種整合系統的自覺性設計。」其過程就是把一個系統中的各個元件擺放在一起,且該元件能和其他元件搭配良好,合乎其規範,運用其成果,以減少或除掉污染與廢棄物。
例如喜歡動手DIY的許伯伯,在公寓一樓擁有間坪數不小的車庫,參與樸門課程後,將其中一片鐵皮屋頂改為透明波浪板,還將自製裝了滑輪的曬衣架放置在透明波浪板正下方,如此一來,車庫不但白天不用點燈,陽光還可將衣服烘乾。
2009年藉由網路平台經營「台灣樸門社群網」的唐敏,建議民眾不妨作一次「價值觀分析」,列出一周內購買物品的清單,然後逐項分析這些東西對心靈、環境、社會是否都有好處。
例如標榜「可分解塑膠袋」,最小分解面積只能到2mm,這些小塑膠片大量沖刷到海裡,會成為濾食性魚蝦的致命食物;而從大賣場買來的一顆蛋,背後常有許多耗能且不健康的作法,例如飼料摻入大量抗生素、將雞拔喙以防互啄等,失去生蛋功能的母雞快速長大後,被做成炸雞塊,雞油則成為全球最大速食連鎖店的冰淇淋。
「檢測的目的是提醒大家,消費前想一想,你真的需要嗎?因為生態危機來自『個人』而不是『別人』,」唐敏強調。
33年前一名澳洲學者的一個新概念,如今已成為跨越國界的土地利用運動和永續生活的思維。長期掠奪自然資源的人類,必須反省、學習,並改變自己的生活,重新和大自然做朋友,從讓雙手雙腳沾上泥土、彎下腰來傾聽土地的聲音,種下對土地的感情,我們期待這些小種苗成長為庇護台灣土地的大樹。

Plans come to fruition

Tammy Turner, an American who has been in Taiwan for 25 years and was in the first group to attend the permaculture design course, remarks that "the word 'design' has a special meaning, in that it refers to a conscious design of an entire integrated system." The design process places all the elements in a system together such that each meshes well with the others. The system as a whole reduces or eliminates pollution and waste.
A Mr. Xu, for example, likes to tinker with things, and for that purpose has a spacious garage on the first floor of his residence. After attending a permaculture course, he replaced part of the tin roof with a transparent corrugated material and set up a clothesline to hang the laundry out to dry under the transparent roof. Now it's no longer necessary to turn lights on in the garage during the day, and he doesn't need to use his clothes dryer.
Having set up the Taiwan Perma-culture Community website in 2009, Turner encourages people to carry out a "values analysis" by listing everything they've bought in the past week and looking at each item to see whether it was beneficial to the spirit, the environment, or society.
Plastic bags may claim to be biodegradable, for example, but they only break down into bits measuring two millimeters at the smallest. When these little pieces of plastic get flushed into the ocean, they can be fatal to filter-feeding fish and shrimp.
Says Turner, "The purpose of this sort of test is to remind people to stop and think before buying things, and ask whether they truly need them, because ecological crises aren't just the other guy's fault, they're our fault."
A new concept put forward 33 years ago by an Australian naturalist has today become the driving force behind a global movement to make better use of the land. Having long treated natural resources as something to be plundered, it is now time for mankind to do some critical reflection, learn new things, and change our way of life. We need to make friends with the environment, get our hands and feet dirty, listen closely to what the soil has to say, and develop an emotional attachment to it. Hopefully the seeds of creative thought now germinating in the minds of a concerned few will eventually grow up into a huge tree that shelters all of the soil in Taiwan.

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