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屋頂上的晚餐

屋頂上的晚餐

都會養耕共生系統在永續生產上已被證明是成功的解決方案,尤其確保糧食和營養安全部份,足以讓弱勢群體自給自足。
Urban aquaponic systems have proven to be successful in providing an environmentally sustainable solution to ensure food and nutrition security and to protect the livelihoods of the most vulnerable.
在加薩走廊,每個家庭每天都在努力謀食。加薩走廊是在世界上人口最稠密的地區之一,人均4,073平方公里(類似新北市的人口密度)。傳統上以農漁業為生,今天持續的以阿衝突限制了當地的農業土地和魚場開發。
In the Gaza Strip, families are struggling to put food on the table every day. The Gaza Strip is one of the most densely populated areas in the world, with 4,073 capita per square kilometre. Traditionally dependant on agriculture and fisheries, today, the local population has limited access to agricultural land and fishing areas, due to the ongoing conflict.

此外,在2007年6月的封鎖已導致食品價格飆升,防止糧食生產的基本投入,如種子,水泵,漁網,備用發動機零部件和獸藥的進口。 2011年,一半的人口作為食品不安全,平均每10人一個養家糊口和兒童被暴露水平上升的急性營養不良和生長發育遲緩。環境挑戰,如水資源短缺,使加沙居民的生活更加岌岌可危。

Additionally, the blockade imposed in June 2007 has caused food prices to soar and prevents imports of basic inputs for food production, such as seeds, water pumps, fishing nets, spare engine parts and veterinary drugs. In 2011, half of the population was reported as food insecure, with an average of one breadwinner for every 10 people, and children being exposed to rising levels of acute malnutrition and stunted growth. Environmental challenges, such as water shortages, have made the life of Gaza’s inhabitants even more precarious.
In July 2010, FAO launched a project to improve the food security of families, with the support of the Kingdom of Belgium. Four women’s associations and a local NGO - Palestine Tomorrow for Social Development (PTSD) - worked jointly with FAO to support vulnerable urban families, mostly female-headed, to setup small sustainable food production activities, in order to combat poverty and malnutrition and reach self-sufficiency.
Urban agriculture as a response to food insecurity
Vertical rooftop or backyard gardens connected to rooftop fish tanks were provided to 100 vulnerable, female-headed families. This integrated production system, called aquaponics, capitalizes on the synergies between aquaculture (fish farming) and horticulture (vegetable or fruit growing), and can work where there is no land, no space and where resources are scarce. Waste water from the fish tanks is used to irrigate the vertical rooftop gardens, and acts as an organic fertilizer, increasing vegetable and fruit production without the need of chemical fertilizers. On the other hand, vegetable waste products are used to feed the fish.
Aquaponic systems are an inexpensive source of animal protein and vitamins and thus greatly improve the diets and health of vulnerable households.
Since taking part in the project, Eman Nofal’s life significantly changed. After her husband died in the conflict between the Fatah and Hamas factions in 2006, she faced hard times in feeding her three sons and one daughter. As soon as the aquaponic system was put in place on her rooftop, she started planting and enjoying her home-grown cucumbers, eggplants, hot peppers, rocket, and tomatoes.
“The system doesn’t require much effort to manage”, she says. “It’s only the initial setup of the system that is more time consuming.”
Her children learned how to use the aquaponic system also, planting and harvesting the vegetables and raising the fish. She reports: “I ask my kids to help me with the system because I want them to understand that if they plant, they will be able to harvest and enjoy fresh vegetables.”
Now that the aquaponic system provides her with safe and tasty fish and vegetables, Eman is thinking of increasing the capacity of her integrated production unit by adding more vegetable growing beds and fish tanks. This could help her to generate some income by selling on the market what her family is not able to consume. The money will help her pay rent for her home, and will also contribute to her children's health and education expenses.
Urban aquaponic systems have proven to be successful not only in providing an environmentally sustainable solution to ensure food and nutrition security and to protect the livelihoods of the most vulnerable, but also in transferring technical skills to younger generations, who can in turn use them to improve their lives.

在2010年7月,糧農組織發起了一個項目,以改善家庭的糧食安全,與比利時王國的支持。四婦女協會和當地非政府組織 - 巴勒斯坦明天社會發展(PTSD) - 曾共同與糧農組織支持來打擊貧困和營養不良,並達到自我的城市弱勢家庭,大多是女性當家的,設置小的可持續食品生產活動,自給自足。
都市型現代農業為應對糧食不安全
的垂直屋頂或後院花園連接到屋頂魚缸的提供100弱勢群體,女性為戶主的家庭。這種集成生產系統,稱為複合養殖,利用之間的協同效應,水產養殖(養魚),園藝(蔬菜或水果種植),並可以工作,那裡是沒有土地,沒有空間和資源是稀缺的。從魚缸廢水用來澆灌屋頂垂直花園,作為有機肥料,化學肥料,而不需要增加蔬菜和水果的生產。另一方面,蔬菜廢物產品用於餵魚。
複合養殖系統是一種廉價的動物蛋白和維生素的來源,從而大大提高了弱勢家庭的飲食和健康。
由於參與該項目,林二汶Nofal生活顯著改變。派別法塔赫和哈馬斯之間的衝突在2006年她丈夫去世後,她面臨著艱難的時刻,在餵養她的三個兒子和一個女兒。只要複合養殖系統已經到位,她開始在她的屋頂種植和享受她家種的黃瓜,茄子,辣椒,火箭,和西紅柿。
“該系統並不需要多大的努力來管理”,她說。 “這只是系統的初始設置是耗費更多的時間。”
她的孩子也學會了如何使用複合養殖系統,種植和收穫的蔬菜,養的魚。她報告:“我問我的孩子們來幫我,因為我希望他們明白,如果他們廠,他們將能收穫和享受新鮮的蔬菜與系統。”
現在,複合養殖系統為她提供安全,美味的魚和蔬菜,林二汶是想提高她的綜合生產裝置的能力增加更多的蔬菜種植床和魚缸。這可以幫助她產生一些收入,市場上賣什麼,她的家庭是不能夠消耗。這筆錢將幫助她為她的家庭支付房租,也將有利於孩子們的健康和教育開支。
城市複合養殖系統已被證明是成功的,不僅提供一個環境上可持續的解決方案,以確保糧食和營養安全,並保護最弱勢群體的生計,但在技術技能轉移給年輕一代,也可以反過來用它們來改善他們的生活。

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蔬菜對溫度日照條件的要求

蔬菜對溫度日照條件的要求
全日照  8個小時日照 瓜類、茄果類、豆類、山藥、豆薯(地瓜)。番茄、黃瓜、茄子、辣椒等喜溫中、強光性
蔬菜夏秋季生產,玉米、青椒、西瓜、南瓜、西紅柿、茄子、芝麻、向日葵類。
其次是根莖類,如:馬鈴薯、甜菜、胡蘿蔔、白蘿蔔、甘藷、山藥等等。至少需半日照,才能生長,芋頭雖喜歡全日照,但比其他蔬菜耐蔭。 
需要中等光照大白菜、甘藍、芥菜、蒜、洋蔥。 

長日性蔬菜白菜、甘藍、芥菜、蘿蔔、胡蘿蔔、芹菜、菠菜、萵苣、蠶豆、豌豆、大蔥、洋蔥。

短日性蔬菜豇豆、扁豆、莧菜、空心菜。         

中光性蔬菜黃瓜、番茄、茄子、辣椒、菜豆

菜豆

菜豆喜溫暖,不耐高溫和霜凍。菜豆種子發芽的適溫為20-30℃;在40℃以上的高溫和10℃以下的低溫,種子不易發芽。幼苗生長適宜氣溫為18-25℃。花芽分化的適宜氣溫為20-25℃,過高或過低溫度易出現發育不完全的花蕾、落花。

菜豆對光照強度的要求較高。在適宜溫度條件下,光照充足則植株生長健壯,莖的節間短而分枝多,開花結莢比較多,而且有利於根部對磷肥的吸收。當光照強度減弱時,植株易徒長,莖的節間長,分枝少,葉質薄,而且開花結莢數少,易落花落莢。

菜豆根系強大,能耐一定程度乾旱,但喜中度濕潤土壤條件,要求水分供應適中,不耐澇。生長期適宜土壤濕度為田間最大持水量的60%-70%,空氣相對濕度以80%為宜。開花結莢期對水分最敏感,此期土壤乾旱對開花結莢有不良影響,開花數、結莢數及莢內種子數減少。土壤水分過大時,下部葉片黃化,早脫落。空氣濕度過大會引起徒長、結莢不良。

菜豆具有深根性和根瘤菌,對土壤的要求不甚嚴格,但仍以土層深厚肥沃、排水良好的輕砂壤土或粘質壤土為好。土壤過於粘重、低溫、排水和通氣不良則生長不良,炭疽病重。菜豆喜中性至微酸性土壤,適宜的土壤pH為5-7.0,其中以州6.2-6.8最適宜。菜豆最忌連作,生產中應實行2-3年輪作。

菜豆生育過程中,主要吸收鉀和氮較多,還要吸收一定量的磷和鈣,才能良好發育。結莢期吸收磷鉀量較大。磷鉀肥對菜豆植株的生長發育、根瘤菌的發育、花芽分化、開花結莢和種子的發育等均有影響。缺乏磷肥,菜豆嫩莢和種子的品質和產量就會降低。缺鈣,幼葉葉片捲曲,葉緣失綠和生長點死亡。缺硼,則根係不發達,影響根瘤菌固氮,使花和豆莢發育不良。 耐陰半陰(大概3-4小時日照) 應選擇耐陰的蔬菜種植,如萵…

黑檸檬

黑檸檬
Dried lemons are actually limes and are used heavily in Persian Gulf and also Iranian cuisine where they add a strong bitter flavor in addition to sourness. They are made by boiling ripe limes in salt water, and then sun drying until the insides turn black. The outside color varies from tan to black. They are sold whole or ground.

Black Lime is a spice used in Middle Eastern dishes. It is made by boiling fresh lime in salt water and sun drying until the insides turn black. The outside color varies from tan to black. It is sold whole or ground.

黑檸檬實際上是使用萊姆,並且在波斯灣和伊朗料理中被大量使用,除了酸味外,它們還添加了強烈的苦味。它們是利用鹽水煮成熟萊姆,然後曬乾,直到內部變黑。外部顏色從棕褐色變化到黑色。他們可以整顆或切片販售。
黑檸檬是用於中東菜餚的香料。它是通過在鹽水中煮沸新鮮的檸檬並經天然乾燥,直到內部變黑。外觀從棕褐色變成黑色。
USE Black limes are usually used in legume, seafood or meat dishes. They are pierced, peeled or crushed before adding them to the dish. After cooking they become softer and edible. They can also be powdered and added to rice dishes. Powdered black lime is also used as an ingredient in Gulf-…

為何冰箱冷凍室非得是零下18度?

為何冰箱冷凍室非得是零下18度? 不少家庭的冰箱有led面板,可顯示冷藏室和冷凍室溫度。每次看到那個零下18℃,不少人,包括筆者在內就會禁不住提出一個小疑問:為什麼冷凍室溫度非得是零下18℃?最多零下1℃不就結冰了嗎?搞這麼低溫度實在是浪費電呢。

聰明如很多人是這樣推測的

百思不得其解,於是很多人,包括筆者在內就開始推測後面的機制了。冷凍室的零下18℃其實不費電,相反,它是節約電力的一個好措施。為何?

冰箱隔一段時間,內部溫度升高後,它就要啟動壓縮機,嗡嗡嗡的。頻繁啟動壓縮機不僅耗電,冰箱的壽命也會降低,還有就是很吵人。怎麼辦?簡單,先把冷凍室的溫度搞得低低的,比如零下18℃左右。


然後,冷凍室的冷氣往上走,來到冷藏室,如此,就能長時間保持冷藏室的溫度處於0到8℃以內了。

待冷凍室的冷氣散失過多,溫度升高到零下幾度時,再啟動冰箱的壓縮機把溫度再次降到零下18℃,如此,冰箱的啟動次數就變少了。

實際是這樣嗎?很遺憾,不是。

原因之一:不一樣的水

水到零度以下就結冰了,這是絕大多數人的認識。然而仔細一想,這不適用於冰箱的冷凍室。因為冷凍室存放的不是上百升礦泉水,而是各種各樣的食物。

食物中含有大量水這沒錯,但這些水同時含有大量的鹽、糖等物質。就像每1升海水中大約含有35克鹽,所以平均起來,要到零下1.33℃時海水才會結冰。

因此,要想把食物凍結,並不是溫度只要達到水的冰點就可以,得保證足夠低的溫度,食物中的水才能凍結,這很重要,因為食物中只要有液態水存在,這就等於是為各種細菌的繁殖提供了必備條件。

圖為牛肉薄片在不同溫度和不同時間內測得的牛肉中凍結水量的曲線。

當牛肉薄片的溫度為零下4℃時,只有70%的水分被凍結;溫度下降到零下9℃左右時,也還有3%的水分未凍結;即使牛肉薄片的溫度降低到零下18℃時,也不是100%的水分都被凍結住。

原因之二:嗜冷微生物

根據微生物對不同溫度的適應範圍,可將微生物分為三大類,嗜熱菌、嗜溫菌和嗜冷菌。在食物的冷藏和冷凍過程中,我們面對的「敵人」是嗜溫菌和嗜冷菌。

一般來說,能引起食物腐敗和食物致毒的嗜溫菌,在低於3 ℃情況下不產生毒素,當然,個別菌種例外。

而對於嗜冷菌,一般得在零下10 ℃到零下12 ℃時才會停止生長。

有的黴菌甚至要到零下15~零下18 ℃時才會停止生長。

瞧,我們以為,零下幾攝氏度後微生物就被殺死或停止繁殖了,但…