簡化型養耕共生

簡化的養耕共生

Aquaponics Simplified

by: Steven Carruthers, 翻譯:台灣大學方煒教授 

威爾森尼歐納介紹他研究成功的可節約大量用水且對環境沒有影響的循環水鱈魚養殖與萵苣栽培的養耕共生系統。
WILSON LENNARD outlines his research to develop a successful recirculating aquaponic system to produce Murray Cod and lettuce, with significant savings in water use and zero environmental impacts. 
我是由養殖端進入養耕共生的,原本從事水產養殖。目前有許多新人加入在室內、以循環水系統從事大規模的淡水魚類的養殖。這類系統通常於密閉的室內,採高密度(集約)方式進行,每年有數以噸計的魚類被飼養於相對頗小的土地面積。這循環水養殖系統的優點就在於水體被充分地循環使用。 
I came to the world of aquaponics from the otherside , that is, the aquaculture side. Freshwater aquaculture is moving into a new phase and a lot of people are now turning towards using large, environmentally controlled indoor recirculation systems to grow fish. These systems are a self-contained unit, usually located in an insulated shed. These are high intensity systems, with tons of fish being produced annually on very small land areas. The advantage of recirculating fish farming is that water is recycled through the system, and is therefore used to its full advantage. 
任何養殖系統都需要面對魚類的廢棄物,而此些廢棄物必須被處理才不至於對環境造成影響。魚類的廢棄物其實是富於營養的,如果直接排放於環境中將對環境不利,所以複合養殖應運而生,我也自然走入這個領域。 

我在找尋可以去除水中富於營養的魚類廢棄物的方法,固形物的去除為例行作業,通常拿去做堆肥,不會有太大困擾,但是對於那些溶於水中的廢棄物才讓我頭大。 
The downfall of any aquaculture operation is that fish produce waste, and this waste needs to be disposed of in a way thatwon’t impact on the environment. Fish waste is nutrient rich and if it is disposed directly to the environment, it can have negative consequences. This is where aquaponics and I come into it. 
I was looking for a way to filter the nutrient-rich fish waste out of aquaculture systems. Solid fish waste is constantly removed from these systems and is usually composted, so it is not much of a problem. It is the water-bound fish waste that is a problem.

大約有70%的魚類廢棄物為水溶性,來自於魚類透過鰓做氣體交換所排出的氨態廢棄物,這是我想處理的。我想找一個方法可以去除我養殖系統中的這類廢棄物。這是必要的,因為目前的循環水養殖業者每天更換10%的養殖水來解決這個問題,這數字看來不大,但是對一個有100噸水體(規模不大)的養殖事業,代表每天要排放10噸的水並找新鮮水進來,排放水還有環保法規需遵守。如我前面所說,我是從養殖者的角度切入的。 
Around 70% of fish waste is actually water-bound, arising from the gas exchange of ammonia-type waste that the fish excrete across their gills.It is this water-bound component that I was looking to treat. So, from my point of view, I was looking for a way to remove water-bound waste from our fish culturing systems. This is required because fish farmers at present change approximately 10% of their water every day, to counteract this build-up of waste. Ten percent may not sound like much, but in a system containing 100,000 litres of water (which is not a large system), that means removing 10,000L of water a day, finding a way to dispose of it, and replacing it with 10,000L of clean, fresh water. So, as I said, I was coming at the problem from a fish culturalist perspective.

The great thing about this water-bound fish waste is that it is mainly nitrates and phosphates. As all hydroponic plant growers know, these are some of the main nutrients used for hydroponic plant culture. So the question arose, can these fish wastes be used as plant nutrients? This is where I started after obtaining a PhD scholarship through the Rural Industry Research and Development Corporation (RIRDC). 養殖水中的可溶性廢棄物飽含氮與磷,這些是水耕栽培作物需要的大量元素,所以這些營養能否被植物吸收呢?在我拿到RIRDC給我的博士研究獎助學金之後,針對這些問題開始研究。 

I set about designing and building an aquaponic system to integrate fish culture with hydroponic plant culture. I had to design a very small-scale system, as I needed to be able to replicate my experimental situations for scientific purposes. So I eventually ended up with 12 aquaponic units that were identical to each other. 我開始設計並建立複合養殖系統來整合水產養殖與水耕的系統,為了科學研究的理由,在需要有足夠的重複試驗的樣本狀況下,我由小的系統做起,最後做了12組完全相同的複合養殖系統。 

A unit consists of a 100L fish tank with an associated biofilter. The biofilter is very important to the fish’s health, as it converts harmful ammonia released by the fish into harmless nitrate. Above the fish tank is a shelf containing a hydroponic gravel bed. Water can be pumped from the fish tank, up to the hydroponic gravel bed, and then returns to the fish tank. That’s it. It’s pretty basic, but it really works. 每一組有100公升的養殖魚槽搭配生物濾床,後者在養殖上非常重要,主要功能在將有害的氨態氮轉換為無害的硝酸態氮。養殖魚槽上方為水耕的栽培礫石植床,循環水用馬達由水槽打上植床,通過礫石回到水槽。既簡單又有效。 

AQUAPONICS THEORY養耕共生的原理 

The theory behind aquaponics is this:the fish live in a tank, eat fish food, and produce two types of waste; solid waste (fishpoo) and water-bound waste. As I said earlier, solid waste is routinely removed and generally composted. The water-bound fish waste is actually the same nitrate and phosphate hydroponic farmers add to their systems using inorganic salts that they purchase. 

魚在養殖槽內生存,產生兩種型態的廢棄物:固態(排泄物)與水溶性。如前所言,前者多半透過定期的收集製造堆肥,後者基本上所含的氮與磷與水耕栽培業者使用無機鹽類調配的營養液的成分是相同的。照片顯示水耕植床上方的燈光與風扇 

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