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FISH 2.0

Q&A With Fish 2.0:

Beyond Seafood Business as Usual

Converting fish waste into food. Powering fish farms in the desert. Generating value from oceans of data.
I caught up with Monica Jain recently to learn what business opportunities are emerging from the Fish 2.0 contest she has organized to connect investors with opportunities in the $390 billion seafood industry. (See "Fish 2.0: Investing in Sustainable Oceans and Fisheries.")
From a surprisingly strong field of entries, Fish 2.0 will present the best businesses to investors this fall. The 65 remaining companies have been paired with advisers to further develop their business plans and will be winnowed to 10 winners and 10 runners-up by November. The top winners will split $75,000, but more important is the prospect of loans and equity investments from the impact investors Jain is lining up to review the deals.
Jain is already identifying market niches in which small and medium-sized businesses are marrying sustainability strategies to business necessities. Jain shared her early insights with Impact IQ, which is developing special coverage of sustainable oceans and fisheries in partnership with SOCAP 13, the social capital markets conference in San Francisco in September.
David Bank: What excites you most about the Fish 2.0 entries?
Monica Jain: The breadth and strength of the businesses. Many of the businesses entering the sustainable seafood sector have a history of operations and are cash flow positive.
Q: What do you mean by 'sustainable seafood'?
A: For example, large amounts of fish are discarded during fish processing and packaging. Fish heads, bones, and meat -- an estimated 40 percent of the fish is wasted during filleting or processing fish. We're seeing new technologies that allow for collection, storage, conversion, and sales of these otherwise wasted protein sources into marketable products.

These waste clippings and meat remnants contain valuable and unique proteins and nutrients. The new end-products include aquaculture feeds, fish meals and fish oil, pet foods, and fertilizers for agriculture.

Q: Is that new? Aren't companies already reducing discards?

A: Yes. Several large aquaculture companies use the excess fish clippings to produce fish feeds or oils for large-scale operations. Now, we are seeing new, smaller companies in other areas of the marketplace, offering collection services for smaller scale processors and sales to local farmers and producers.

Q: How big is this opportunity?
A: The aquaculture market is worth about $120 billion per year. That's at the farm level, where producers grow 60 million tons of seafood,or about 41 percent of the world's seafood. Global demand for protein is only growing. An additional 23 million tons of seafood per year will be needed worldwide by 2030. (Editor's note: for more information, see Jain's white paper, "Financing Aquaculture: Investment Opportunities in Farmed Seafood")

Producers are looking for substitutes for the fish oil and fishmeal that they use in feeds. The harvests of smaller, forage fish (like sardines) that are traditionally used in feeds are projected to stay stable at best or to decline at worst.

Converting otherwise wasted fish drives industry profits by making sustainability a basic part of the business.

Q: What's another emerging area of innovation?

A: Information technology solutions, like software, databases and brokerage companies that will help fishermen to shorten supply chains and to have more control over whom their catch is sold to and at what price.

Some of the Fish 2.0 competitors are developing systems to track the health of wild populations, verify the origin of seafood products, and help fishermen garner higher profits. That includes premium prices for the fish that they catch sustainably.

Q: How?
A: For example, with web-based auction systems and online sales contracting and distribution systems that connect fishermen directly with buyers.

Currently, most fishermen sell their catch to the one business that has offloading and storage privileges on the dock. In many cases, the fishermen do not even know up front how much they will earn from their catch or what price it later gets in the market. They are only advised of the price they receive once the distributor has sold the catch and taken their own margin, usually several days after the seafood lands on the dock.

Fishermen work in this system because it is the only option in many cases and because of their need to offload their boats quickly, sell their fish, and get back to sea during open seasons and good weather

Q: Better data can help retailers, too?
A: Some of these technology solutions offer traceability and tagging to identify fish from a particular farm or boat and track it all the way through the supply chain.

Right now, the complexity of seafood supply chains also makes it difficult for retailers and restaurants to trace where their seafood comes from and ensure that no fraudulent identification of the seafood has occurred in the chain.

These innovations will allow discerning retailers and consumers to have confidence in the freshness, quality, species, and sustainability of the products they buy. It also creates potential for greater price premiums for seafood that meets these requirements. Better pricing and shorter supply chains mean that a larger proportion of the profits can be allocated directly to the fishermen and other stewards of ocean resources.

Q: What were some of the surprises?
Fish 2.0: One area that appears to be ripe for growth is in new aquaponic technologies that allow for small-scale farming of fish and vegetables together in the same system - literally, growing fish in vegetable gardens. This can be done in a backyard, on a rooftop, or at scale for a commercial enterprise.

Q: Is that just an eco-novelty, or a serious business opportunity?
A: Many areas of the world do not have access to fresh fish and have growing populations in need of protein -- in deserts or other inland geographies that do not have strong supply chains for food distribution from coastal areas or which lack enough water supply for traditional agriculture. There are aquaculture technologies that allow for cultivation of fish in these areas, but they have largely required too much energy and water to be profitable.
These aquaponics systems reduce the amount of freshwater needed to produce fresh vegetables and also allow for fish to be co-cultivated alongside the produce. This local-level farming also lowers the distribution and transportation costs for fresh food.
Q: So local, organic fish is the new frontier of "eat local"?
A: The demand for local food products is growing in North America, Europe, and Japan. We are seeing new seafood businesses that are taking advantage of this interest in healthy, local and sustainable food, helping brand their product and sell directly to consumers.
For example, some of these efforts help fishermen tell personal stories around the seafood that interest and keep customers, while others focus on promoting fish as a healthy protein source.
Investing in both fish and agricultural businesses offers a way for investors interested in regional food systems to diversify their portfolios, and to have their investment allocations reflect all of the food on their plates.
Q: What's next for Fish 2.0?
A: Our goal is to connect investors with viable businesses in sustainable seafood. We would love to have more folks involved in Fish 2.0 as the competition progresses.

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蔬菜對溫度日照條件的要求

蔬菜對溫度日照條件的要求
全日照  8個小時日照 瓜類、茄果類、豆類、山藥、豆薯(地瓜)。番茄、黃瓜、茄子、辣椒等喜溫中、強光性
蔬菜夏秋季生產,玉米、青椒、西瓜、南瓜、西紅柿、茄子、芝麻、向日葵類。
其次是根莖類,如:馬鈴薯、甜菜、胡蘿蔔、白蘿蔔、甘藷、山藥等等。至少需半日照,才能生長,芋頭雖喜歡全日照,但比其他蔬菜耐蔭。 
需要中等光照大白菜、甘藍、芥菜、蒜、洋蔥。 

長日性蔬菜白菜、甘藍、芥菜、蘿蔔、胡蘿蔔、芹菜、菠菜、萵苣、蠶豆、豌豆、大蔥、洋蔥。

短日性蔬菜豇豆、扁豆、莧菜、空心菜。         

中光性蔬菜黃瓜、番茄、茄子、辣椒、菜豆

菜豆

菜豆喜溫暖,不耐高溫和霜凍。菜豆種子發芽的適溫為20-30℃;在40℃以上的高溫和10℃以下的低溫,種子不易發芽。幼苗生長適宜氣溫為18-25℃。花芽分化的適宜氣溫為20-25℃,過高或過低溫度易出現發育不完全的花蕾、落花。

菜豆對光照強度的要求較高。在適宜溫度條件下,光照充足則植株生長健壯,莖的節間短而分枝多,開花結莢比較多,而且有利於根部對磷肥的吸收。當光照強度減弱時,植株易徒長,莖的節間長,分枝少,葉質薄,而且開花結莢數少,易落花落莢。

菜豆根系強大,能耐一定程度乾旱,但喜中度濕潤土壤條件,要求水分供應適中,不耐澇。生長期適宜土壤濕度為田間最大持水量的60%-70%,空氣相對濕度以80%為宜。開花結莢期對水分最敏感,此期土壤乾旱對開花結莢有不良影響,開花數、結莢數及莢內種子數減少。土壤水分過大時,下部葉片黃化,早脫落。空氣濕度過大會引起徒長、結莢不良。

菜豆具有深根性和根瘤菌,對土壤的要求不甚嚴格,但仍以土層深厚肥沃、排水良好的輕砂壤土或粘質壤土為好。土壤過於粘重、低溫、排水和通氣不良則生長不良,炭疽病重。菜豆喜中性至微酸性土壤,適宜的土壤pH為5-7.0,其中以州6.2-6.8最適宜。菜豆最忌連作,生產中應實行2-3年輪作。

菜豆生育過程中,主要吸收鉀和氮較多,還要吸收一定量的磷和鈣,才能良好發育。結莢期吸收磷鉀量較大。磷鉀肥對菜豆植株的生長發育、根瘤菌的發育、花芽分化、開花結莢和種子的發育等均有影響。缺乏磷肥,菜豆嫩莢和種子的品質和產量就會降低。缺鈣,幼葉葉片捲曲,葉緣失綠和生長點死亡。缺硼,則根係不發達,影響根瘤菌固氮,使花和豆莢發育不良。 耐陰半陰(大概3-4小時日照) 應選擇耐陰的蔬菜種植,如萵…

錦鯉養殖基本知識

◎飼養與管理的重點 只要不是劇烈的變化,錦鯉很容易適應各水溫水質等環境的變化。並不是沒有大庭園就無法飼養,有人甚至在二樓陽台或頂樓陽台造水池飼養。然而我們是欣賞錦鯉雄壯豪邁之氣,因此水池盡量寬闊為宜,以水深1.2m以上為理想。魚池必須有底水排出,過濾循環等設備。用水不一定要取地下水,自來水也可以飼養。
<因為都市中有景觀安全的需求,及屋頂花園有荷重的需求,錦鯉池水深可以低到30cm左右。>
◎每天排水
A、糞或枯死的藻類全部送至過濾槽的話,耗氧量會增大,pH就下降,更會轉變為亞硝酸,增了過濾槽的負擔。為了盡量減輕過濾槽的負擔,每天至少把魚池的底水排水使固物排出去,把中間水送去沉澱槽及過濾槽。 
B、把固體廢物的魚糞集中排出,最好不要從池底打氣而是從排糞口的上方40~50公分打打氣。如此氣泡往上昇。池水產生對流。污物就集中於排糞口。
<可以設計水流把固體廢物盡量集中或排出到過濾系統中。>
◎過濾槽管理
A、細菌附著於濾材,分解固體廢物會消耗大量的氧。 
B、溶氧不足時,厭氧菌會把硝酸還原亞硝酸,或從碳酸氣發生沼氣,也會從硫酸分解產生硫化氫等有毒氣體。
<如果溶氧不足,可以優先把打氣設備放置到生化過濾槽中。>
◎溶氧要充份
A、水中溶氧不足的話,會影響錦鯉的生育,飼料的消化,,水質的維持等等。
B、硝酸,亞硝酸的濃度增高時,會影響溶氧量。所以優先去除硝酸及亞硝酸。
C、使用沸石可輕易去除硝酸,沸石量約等重於魚體總重量。
<沸石再生法,是將沸石浸泡25℃以上1:10食鹽水數小時,再以清水洗淨即可。>
◎水質的控制
水質硬度高的話,錦鯉肌膚經常會有少許充血的狀態。豔麗性也會慢慢消失,紅緋會上升。pH值低,肌膚變的很不好看,但是雖餵增色飼料,依然不見起色,徒增浪費。pH值7.1~7.5最適宜的。
◎鯉餌的重要性
良好的魚餌不會崩壞鯉的體型。餌的量也是在夏天水溫 高的時候,訂定停餌期間,才是整體來說使鯉變胖最重要的秘訣。如果還是想 要給很多餌的話,要增加循還量。錦鯉在水溫超過28度的時候,應給與相當於 鯉全體重量3%的餌。水溫25度時1.5%,水溫20度時0.3%,16度以下則要停止鯉餌,這就是鯉魚長得強壯的要訣。連續不斷地給鯉餌的話,引起內臟障礙, 而影響到鯉不會長壯,甚至導至體型的變歪。
◎魚病預防
水的管理與定期消毒都是很重要的步驟,…

連通管原理與應用

英文版, English version
中文版, Chinese version
西班牙文版, Espanol version 

連通管基本原理 1.連通管原理指的是,在一般開放的空間中,幾個液體容器的底部都相通的裝置,而若任一容器內注入液體,則當液體靜止時,各容器的液面必在同一水平面。



2.兩 端的大氣壓力一樣,但管內兩端的水受重力作用而各自下墜,下墜瞬間,在圓弧頂部拉出一個真空,因真空而有壓力差,此時兩端的大氣壓 力再次從兩端將兩管的水壓回,但壓回的力量是大氣壓力減去管內的水壓(F=(Patm-PH2O)*A),而長管內的水比短管內的水還要重,所以壓回的力 量是短管的壓力大於長管的壓力,所 以,虹吸管內的水就會不斷的由短管端流入而由長管端流出。



3.如果我們用兩根連通管,所以效率會變成兩倍。




4.如果用兩根連通管,但是其中一個連接抽水馬達,此時一根連通管是抽水,所以另一根把水送回,大氣壓力將兩管的水平衡,所 以,一個馬達可以有兩倍的動力,水就會不斷的循環。


問題1:請比較上連通管與下連通管的差異?
問題2:請問雙連通管時,管徑與高度差的關係?



簡易潮汐開關 (外部連通管) 1.由於水持續進入水箱,水在水箱和潮汐開關內以同樣的速度上升。(潮汐開關內的底部是連通的)。虹吸管是通到外部的。水會持續上升到外部的開口端。 2.一旦水上升到內部的開口端,它變成一個密封空間。由於水繼續上升,在水箱內水位繼續上升,但速度變慢。同時,水箱內水壓漸大。
3.由於水位接近高水位線,壓力在開關內鐘將水位上升到臨界,造成部份水會先進入管道。
(同時會將管道上端部份空氣帶出,因為空氣在管內流動,也是噪音最大的時候) 4.由於水在水箱到達高水位線後,體積空氣被迫壓縮管道,並透過虹吸作用,排出的空氣壓力後,進而開始大量排水。
(一旦開始大量排水,也是聲音最小的時候)
5.水會一直流出,直到水位低到讓潮汐開關吸入空氣。然後,潮汐開關回歸起始位置。
6.由於水持續進入水箱,水在水箱和潮汐開關內以同樣的速度上升。(潮汐開關內的底部是連通的)。虹吸管是通到外部的。水會持續上升到內部的開口端。
可以參考以下的影片


簡易鐘型潮汐開關
1.由於水持續進入水箱,水在水箱和潮汐開關內以同樣的速度上升。(潮汐開關內的底部是連通的)。虹吸管是通到外部的。水會持續上升到內部的開口端。 2.一旦水位上升到內部的開口端,直接…