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都會農耕: 零成本的七種菜園加分法


都會農耕: 零成本的七種菜園加分法

7 No-Cost Ways to Grow More Food in Your Garden


by Sami Grover, 翻譯: Sunny Arky

When I wrote a post about products that help promote soil biodiversity, some commenters were skeptical about commercial products that are shipped long distances with all the packaging and waste that goes with them.
They may have a point. After all, the secrets of healthy soil usually start at home.
And many of them are free. Here are some of our favorites

堆肥

沃土首重養土,培養土壤中益生菌,你可以選用肥料或有機物。不管蚯蚓堆肥或紙箱堆肥,利用身邊的素材就能自製肥料,不僅補充作物養分並培養土壤益生菌,並提升保水及排水能力,並減少垃圾量!

Compost everything

First and foremost, if you want to build healthy, lively soils, you first have to add food for the soil microbes that inhabit it. That food comes in the form of compost and other organic matter. Whether you are making worm compost or composting cardboard boxes, creating your own soil amendments from materials that would otherwise go to waste is a no-brainer. Not only does it add plant nutrients and beneficial microorganisms to your soil, it also aids with both water retention and drainage and reduces the amount of crap you are sending to landfill too.


覆蓋、覆蓋、覆蓋

土表覆蓋是減少用水的良方,同時抑制雜草、避免土壤乾燥或雨水沖刷。同時ˇ對土壤保溫,以利養分吸收。你可以花市購買覆蓋物(今年我用松枝),但也有許多免費的材料,例如紙箱、報紙、枯枝落葉都很好用。如果你的花園種有足夠的植物,也可利用chop-n-drop覆蓋法,也就是將枯枝老葉鋪土覆蓋(我有時就用粗糙過老的瑞士甜菜覆蓋)。

Mulch, mulch, mulch

Mulching is a great way to reduce water use, suppress weeds and protect soils from drying out or erosion. It also keeps soils warm, meaning that more nutrients are available to plants when they need them. You can, of course, buy mulch from the garden store (I have been using bales of pine straw this year), but there are also plenty of readily-available free materials that can be put to use. Cardboard, newspapers, lawn clippings and shredded leaves are all useful in their own way. If you have enough plant material growing in your garden, you can even explore chop-n-drop mulching where you simply cut back excessive growth and let the cuttings fall as a mulch. (I sometimes do this with overly tough and overgrown chard leaves.)

排泄物堆肥

這不是人人都適用,如果你想利用任何市售肥料(不論是否為有機)為作物補充養分,你可能會想找到更貼近家庭生活的資源。我在「用排泄物拯救人類的五種方式」(5 ways that urine can help save humanity,
原文:http://www.treehugger.com/clean-water/5-ways-urine-can-help-save-humanity.html
)文中提到,尿液不只能取代合成肥料,更有研究指出利用尿液澆灌的蕃茄與對照組相較之下,成長情況明顯較佳。一般常見的用法是一份尿液加九份清水稀釋(很多人建議可以直接尿在水桶,再以雨撲滿收集的雨水稀釋使用。)

Use urine as fertilizer

This one is probably not for everyone, but if you supplement your plant's nutrients with shop-bought fertilizers of any kind (organic or not) you might want to consider a source closer to home. As mentioned in my post on 5 ways that urine can help save humanity, not only can pee replace synthetic fertilizers, but research has shown that tomatoes grown with urine actually out perform their conventionally grown counterparts. Most sources I've looked at suggest diluting 1 part urine with 9 parts water. (Many folks suggest simply peeing in a watering can and then filling up the rest from your rain barrel.)

保種和扦插

對節儉的人來說,保種不只是減少作物換季時的種苗開銷,同時可以利用保種培育最適合當地氣候環境的品種,當然對土壤裡共生的微生物和小動物。這也表示能減少病蟲害並有更多產量。或者藉由扦插獲得種苗,以蕃茄為例,摘除的側芽也可以扦插。

Save seeds and take cuttings

For the frugal, saving seeds is not just a great way to reduce your expenditure each planting season. Over time, you can also breed unique varieties of plants that have adapted to your specific climate and conditions, not to mention co-evolved with the micro-flora and -fauna that inhabit your soils. And that should mean lower instances of disease and pests and, hopefully, better yields too. It's worth noting that you can also increase the number of plants you're growing by taking cuttings—tomatoes, for example, can be grown from the side-shoots you normally pinch off during pruning.

收集雨水

集雨也是省錢良方。同時大部份不知道的是雨水灌溉對植物更好。根據布魯克林植物園指出,雨水澆灌的好處包括較少汙染物,較自來水接近室溫,因此比較不會傷根,雨水本身不含氯,因為氯會破壞益生菌影響植物生長。


Collect rainwater

Collecting rainwater is another one of those activities that saves money in-and-of itself by reducing your water bills. It's perhaps less well know, though, that rainwater harvesting can also benefit the plants in your garden too. According to the Brooklyn Botanic Garden, the benefits of harvested rainwater include that it typically has fewer contaminants, it is kept at a luke warm temperature and thus doesn't shock plant roots as tap water can, and it also is not treated with chlorine, a chemical which may destroy soil microbes and inhibit plant growth.

善待蜜蜂


大部分的人都知道植物依賴昆蟲授粉。由於我們所吃的食物不是果實就是種籽,代表蜜蜂或其他授粉者扮演著重要的角色。你當然可以買華麗的花束來吸引蜜蜂,但是也有更便宜的作法,只要讓植物持續生長直到開花,就能提供充足的蜜源(反正你也不會想除草!),周圍放上一些枯木就能提供非群居蜂類棲息。或許我們不需要詳述,但善待蜜蜂最簡單的是不要再浪費錢購買傷害牠們的化學藥物。

Encourage bees

Most folks know that pollinators are absolutely central to plants' reproductive processes. Because much of what we eat is either fruit or seed, that means bees and other pollinators are central to what we eat too. You can, of course, encourage bees by buying fancy wildflower packets—but there are cheaper ways too. Simply leaving plants and weeds to flower can be a great way to provide forage (you didn't really want to mow the lawn anyway!), and leaving dead wood around can provide habitat for solitary bees too. We probably don't need to tell TreeHugger readers this, of course, but the simplest way to support bees is to stop wasting money on the chemicals that kill them.


別亂挖洞


這對傳統的園藝人士來說很難,但在特定情況下可考慮不挖地菜園的轉換,建立不會被踐踏的苗床,鋪上厚厚的覆蓋層及大量的有機物,苗床能保護土壤中的蚯蚓、益生菌、真菌等,這些元素有助於保持沃土。
雖然苗床未必能提高種苗產量,在網路園藝論壇仍有不少爭論,但身為一個懶人,我保證這樣會大幅減少你需要花費在每一棵作物的勞務,同時提升土壤固碳量。這些都是苗床法的好處,也是我在書中值得一提的。

Don't dig

This one's often a little hard for traditional gardeners to grasp, but a strong case can be made for transitioning to a no-dig vegetable garden. By building raised beds which are NEVER walked on, heavily mulched and fed by top dressings of large amounts of organic matter, proponents of no-dig gardening say it protects vital soil life including worms, microbes and mychorrizal fungi which all play a part in maintaining soil fertility.

Whether no-dig gardening actually increases garden productivity per plant is a matter of much debate in the gardening forums online, but as a committed lazivore I can confirm that it greatly reduces the amount of physical labor you put in for each "unit" of harvest and increases the amount of carbon stored in the soil too. These are both yields of their own kind that are well worth celebrating in my book.

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蔬菜對溫度日照條件的要求

蔬菜對溫度日照條件的要求
全日照  8個小時日照 瓜類、茄果類、豆類、山藥、豆薯(地瓜)。番茄、黃瓜、茄子、辣椒等喜溫中、強光性
蔬菜夏秋季生產,玉米、青椒、西瓜、南瓜、西紅柿、茄子、芝麻、向日葵類。
其次是根莖類,如:馬鈴薯、甜菜、胡蘿蔔、白蘿蔔、甘藷、山藥等等。至少需半日照,才能生長,芋頭雖喜歡全日照,但比其他蔬菜耐蔭。 
需要中等光照大白菜、甘藍、芥菜、蒜、洋蔥。 

長日性蔬菜白菜、甘藍、芥菜、蘿蔔、胡蘿蔔、芹菜、菠菜、萵苣、蠶豆、豌豆、大蔥、洋蔥。

短日性蔬菜豇豆、扁豆、莧菜、空心菜。         

中光性蔬菜黃瓜、番茄、茄子、辣椒、菜豆

菜豆

菜豆喜溫暖,不耐高溫和霜凍。菜豆種子發芽的適溫為20-30℃;在40℃以上的高溫和10℃以下的低溫,種子不易發芽。幼苗生長適宜氣溫為18-25℃。花芽分化的適宜氣溫為20-25℃,過高或過低溫度易出現發育不完全的花蕾、落花。

菜豆對光照強度的要求較高。在適宜溫度條件下,光照充足則植株生長健壯,莖的節間短而分枝多,開花結莢比較多,而且有利於根部對磷肥的吸收。當光照強度減弱時,植株易徒長,莖的節間長,分枝少,葉質薄,而且開花結莢數少,易落花落莢。

菜豆根系強大,能耐一定程度乾旱,但喜中度濕潤土壤條件,要求水分供應適中,不耐澇。生長期適宜土壤濕度為田間最大持水量的60%-70%,空氣相對濕度以80%為宜。開花結莢期對水分最敏感,此期土壤乾旱對開花結莢有不良影響,開花數、結莢數及莢內種子數減少。土壤水分過大時,下部葉片黃化,早脫落。空氣濕度過大會引起徒長、結莢不良。

菜豆具有深根性和根瘤菌,對土壤的要求不甚嚴格,但仍以土層深厚肥沃、排水良好的輕砂壤土或粘質壤土為好。土壤過於粘重、低溫、排水和通氣不良則生長不良,炭疽病重。菜豆喜中性至微酸性土壤,適宜的土壤pH為5-7.0,其中以州6.2-6.8最適宜。菜豆最忌連作,生產中應實行2-3年輪作。

菜豆生育過程中,主要吸收鉀和氮較多,還要吸收一定量的磷和鈣,才能良好發育。結莢期吸收磷鉀量較大。磷鉀肥對菜豆植株的生長發育、根瘤菌的發育、花芽分化、開花結莢和種子的發育等均有影響。缺乏磷肥,菜豆嫩莢和種子的品質和產量就會降低。缺鈣,幼葉葉片捲曲,葉緣失綠和生長點死亡。缺硼,則根係不發達,影響根瘤菌固氮,使花和豆莢發育不良。 耐陰半陰(大概3-4小時日照) 應選擇耐陰的蔬菜種植,如萵…

何謂硝酸鹽

何謂硝酸鹽硝酸鹽是一種自然物質 硝酸鹽來自於氮素。氮素是植物生長必須的養分,植物有了氮素才會生長健康。而氮素是自然物質,空氣有有80%氮氣,下雨過後,氮素隨雨落下,存在大土壤裡。像森林一樣,通常植物殘體和落葉堆肥,就能一直循環使用大地中的氮素。而豆科植物更是固氮作物。如果作物採收過快,則需要施肥。

氮素怎麼會變成硝酸鹽? 氮素會被土壤中的細菌分解為硝酸鹽(硝化作用),植物吸收硝酸鹽,再把硝酸鹽製造成氨基酸與蛋白質。植物吸收的硝酸鹽,是在夜裡發生的,硝酸鹽得經過充分的日照,經過光合作用才能轉化為氨基酸與蛋白質。所以,胺基酸是在白天製造的。葉菜裡頭,一定會同時含有氨基酸與蛋白質、硝酸鹽。光合作用的(日照)時間長一些,硝酸鹽就會少一些。


為什麼硝酸鹽會過量? 
硝酸鹽來不及變成胺基酸有兩個原因。

第一,是光合作用不足(日照不夠),陰雨天不只是日照不足,天上(雨水)還會落下氮素,增加土壤中的氮素。避免陰雨天採收,或凌晨採收,傍晚採收最好。
第二,才是過度施肥,蔬菜裡含太多氮素。
從充分日照與適量施肥著手,就可讓硝酸鹽降低。對於葉菜類,儘量調整傍晚採收,讓蔬菜有充足日照行光合作用。

硝酸鹽是壞東西? 人體有80%以上的硝酸鹽,來自於蔬菜,尤其是葉菜類,難道它只對身體有害?
讓葉菜除了豐富的維生素之外,還含有硝酸鹽?
硝酸鹽並不可怕,而是進到身體裡頭,轉化成亞硝酸胺,才會致癌。亞硝酸胺在食道會造成食道癌、在胃部會造成胃癌。可是硝酸鹽是必須的健康成份,進到人體裡面,也會轉化成一氧化氮,殺死沙門氏菌、大腸桿菌,增加血液循環、增厚胃壁,減少細菌感染與潰瘍的發生。所以問題是阻斷亞硝酸胺的形成,增加一氧化氮的形成?

吃的不對,硝酸鹽變成壞東西 如果清楚蔬菜營養成分,就會明白大自然的神奇安排。怎麼讓硝酸鹽要變成一氧化氮?原來是維生素C&E,吃葉菜的時候,就會同時攝取到維生素C&E、硝酸鹽。所以吃新鮮的菜很重要,新鮮採收的菜才能留住維生素。洗菜的方式更重要,很多長輩習慣切完菜再洗、或者反覆戳洗葉片、或者一直泡水,維生素易溶於水,水都是綠色了,菜就沒維生素了。

是誰讓硝酸鹽要變成亞硝酸胺? 口腔跟胃內的細菌,會把硝酸鹽變成了亞硝酸鹽,亞硝酸鹽遇到了胺類,就會變成可怕的亞硝酸胺。我們的胃部裡怎麼會有胺類?哪些食物含有胺類?
像乾燥海產像鯖魚乾、鯷魚乾、蚵乾、蝦米乾、及魷魚乾,還有生鮮海產像…

水耕栽培

水耕栽培-精緻蔬菜生產技術之開發文/高德錚 為穩定台灣夏季蔬菜之產銷及提昇蔬菜之品質,使國人能享受既便宜又無農藥殘毒之清潔蔬菜,台中農改場在農委會及農林廳經費補助下正積極研究無土水耕栽培技術,希望發展出一套既可提供家庭主婦在公寓陽台上或屋頂上生產蔬菜,又可藉『植物工廠』年中無休地生產蔬菜。
如何『選擇無農藥殘毒之精緻蔬菜』的疑問一直困擾著家庭主婦,消費者常以菜葉上具有蟲孔者視為上品。事實上台灣位處亞熱帶,四季溫暖,媒介昆蟲及病菌生育世代繁盛下,若不能有效地抑制其族群之擴張,則無法達到經濟性之生產,因此過去二、三十年來大抵藉用噴灑農藥來防治病蟲害,作為增產之途徑。
歐美國家由於緯度較高,季節性溫差較大,農藥使用頻率遠低於台灣業者,其生產之蔬菜幾可生食,甚至臨近之日本國民每日生食萵苣、芹菜、紫蘇、高麗菜的生活習慣,常令人羨慕不已。我國之農業生產技術並不亞於日本,為何日本能,我們不能?
水耕栽培植物之構想是有歷史淵源的,早在紀元前數百年前古埃及之楔形文字遺跡中即可發現有植物生長於水中的圖形,而世界七大不可思議的傳說中『巴比崙的空中花園』,亦常讓人百思不解。其實土壤為天然的栽培床,她為植物之母,固持著植物,及提供各種生育必需之元素。一旦不用土壤作為栽培介質,若能人為的固持植物根部及提供各種營養成分,則在水中生長植物又有何不可呢?以日本筑波萬國博覽會上展示之一株活生生地,預計可結一萬二千個果實之水耕番茄,可了解水耕技術之奧妙。水耕無土栽培因果菜類及葉菜類生理習性之分野,在植株育苗、栽培床構造及養液循環系統之設計上略有不同,目前本場已成功地各開發一套水耕栽培技術,在240平方公尺之溫室中以岩棉栽培法來培植番茄、胡瓜、草莓及木瓜等果菜,並以浮根式栽培法來生產小白菜、萵苣、山(水)芹菜及菠菜等葉菜。
據目前研究成果顯示養液蔬菜生產技術之優點為
(1)縮短生育期,增加年收穫數;
(2)週年性工業化生產;
(3)無農藥污染,
(4)迴避土壤病蟲害及連作障害;
(5)施肥合理化;
(6)省勞力;
(7)輕勞動力;
(8)不懼農村老齡化。岩棉栽培法 栽培介質:岩棉(rockwool)為人造之礦石纖維(圖一),與坊間之石棉(asbestos)不同,石棉可由天然礦石中開採取得,岩棉為玄武岩或輝綠岩等礦石在1,600℃下熔融後,利用高速離心設備使岩漿形成微粒液滴,諸液滴因高速離心運動露於空氣中…