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都會農耕: 零成本的七種菜園加分法


都會農耕: 零成本的七種菜園加分法

7 No-Cost Ways to Grow More Food in Your Garden


by Sami Grover, 翻譯: Sunny Arky

When I wrote a post about products that help promote soil biodiversity, some commenters were skeptical about commercial products that are shipped long distances with all the packaging and waste that goes with them.
They may have a point. After all, the secrets of healthy soil usually start at home.
And many of them are free. Here are some of our favorites

堆肥

沃土首重養土,培養土壤中益生菌,你可以選用肥料或有機物。不管蚯蚓堆肥或紙箱堆肥,利用身邊的素材就能自製肥料,不僅補充作物養分並培養土壤益生菌,並提升保水及排水能力,並減少垃圾量!

Compost everything

First and foremost, if you want to build healthy, lively soils, you first have to add food for the soil microbes that inhabit it. That food comes in the form of compost and other organic matter. Whether you are making worm compost or composting cardboard boxes, creating your own soil amendments from materials that would otherwise go to waste is a no-brainer. Not only does it add plant nutrients and beneficial microorganisms to your soil, it also aids with both water retention and drainage and reduces the amount of crap you are sending to landfill too.


覆蓋、覆蓋、覆蓋

土表覆蓋是減少用水的良方,同時抑制雜草、避免土壤乾燥或雨水沖刷。同時ˇ對土壤保溫,以利養分吸收。你可以花市購買覆蓋物(今年我用松枝),但也有許多免費的材料,例如紙箱、報紙、枯枝落葉都很好用。如果你的花園種有足夠的植物,也可利用chop-n-drop覆蓋法,也就是將枯枝老葉鋪土覆蓋(我有時就用粗糙過老的瑞士甜菜覆蓋)。

Mulch, mulch, mulch

Mulching is a great way to reduce water use, suppress weeds and protect soils from drying out or erosion. It also keeps soils warm, meaning that more nutrients are available to plants when they need them. You can, of course, buy mulch from the garden store (I have been using bales of pine straw this year), but there are also plenty of readily-available free materials that can be put to use. Cardboard, newspapers, lawn clippings and shredded leaves are all useful in their own way. If you have enough plant material growing in your garden, you can even explore chop-n-drop mulching where you simply cut back excessive growth and let the cuttings fall as a mulch. (I sometimes do this with overly tough and overgrown chard leaves.)

排泄物堆肥

這不是人人都適用,如果你想利用任何市售肥料(不論是否為有機)為作物補充養分,你可能會想找到更貼近家庭生活的資源。我在「用排泄物拯救人類的五種方式」(5 ways that urine can help save humanity,
原文:http://www.treehugger.com/clean-water/5-ways-urine-can-help-save-humanity.html
)文中提到,尿液不只能取代合成肥料,更有研究指出利用尿液澆灌的蕃茄與對照組相較之下,成長情況明顯較佳。一般常見的用法是一份尿液加九份清水稀釋(很多人建議可以直接尿在水桶,再以雨撲滿收集的雨水稀釋使用。)

Use urine as fertilizer

This one is probably not for everyone, but if you supplement your plant's nutrients with shop-bought fertilizers of any kind (organic or not) you might want to consider a source closer to home. As mentioned in my post on 5 ways that urine can help save humanity, not only can pee replace synthetic fertilizers, but research has shown that tomatoes grown with urine actually out perform their conventionally grown counterparts. Most sources I've looked at suggest diluting 1 part urine with 9 parts water. (Many folks suggest simply peeing in a watering can and then filling up the rest from your rain barrel.)

保種和扦插

對節儉的人來說,保種不只是減少作物換季時的種苗開銷,同時可以利用保種培育最適合當地氣候環境的品種,當然對土壤裡共生的微生物和小動物。這也表示能減少病蟲害並有更多產量。或者藉由扦插獲得種苗,以蕃茄為例,摘除的側芽也可以扦插。

Save seeds and take cuttings

For the frugal, saving seeds is not just a great way to reduce your expenditure each planting season. Over time, you can also breed unique varieties of plants that have adapted to your specific climate and conditions, not to mention co-evolved with the micro-flora and -fauna that inhabit your soils. And that should mean lower instances of disease and pests and, hopefully, better yields too. It's worth noting that you can also increase the number of plants you're growing by taking cuttings—tomatoes, for example, can be grown from the side-shoots you normally pinch off during pruning.

收集雨水

集雨也是省錢良方。同時大部份不知道的是雨水灌溉對植物更好。根據布魯克林植物園指出,雨水澆灌的好處包括較少汙染物,較自來水接近室溫,因此比較不會傷根,雨水本身不含氯,因為氯會破壞益生菌影響植物生長。


Collect rainwater

Collecting rainwater is another one of those activities that saves money in-and-of itself by reducing your water bills. It's perhaps less well know, though, that rainwater harvesting can also benefit the plants in your garden too. According to the Brooklyn Botanic Garden, the benefits of harvested rainwater include that it typically has fewer contaminants, it is kept at a luke warm temperature and thus doesn't shock plant roots as tap water can, and it also is not treated with chlorine, a chemical which may destroy soil microbes and inhibit plant growth.

善待蜜蜂


大部分的人都知道植物依賴昆蟲授粉。由於我們所吃的食物不是果實就是種籽,代表蜜蜂或其他授粉者扮演著重要的角色。你當然可以買華麗的花束來吸引蜜蜂,但是也有更便宜的作法,只要讓植物持續生長直到開花,就能提供充足的蜜源(反正你也不會想除草!),周圍放上一些枯木就能提供非群居蜂類棲息。或許我們不需要詳述,但善待蜜蜂最簡單的是不要再浪費錢購買傷害牠們的化學藥物。

Encourage bees

Most folks know that pollinators are absolutely central to plants' reproductive processes. Because much of what we eat is either fruit or seed, that means bees and other pollinators are central to what we eat too. You can, of course, encourage bees by buying fancy wildflower packets—but there are cheaper ways too. Simply leaving plants and weeds to flower can be a great way to provide forage (you didn't really want to mow the lawn anyway!), and leaving dead wood around can provide habitat for solitary bees too. We probably don't need to tell TreeHugger readers this, of course, but the simplest way to support bees is to stop wasting money on the chemicals that kill them.


別亂挖洞


這對傳統的園藝人士來說很難,但在特定情況下可考慮不挖地菜園的轉換,建立不會被踐踏的苗床,鋪上厚厚的覆蓋層及大量的有機物,苗床能保護土壤中的蚯蚓、益生菌、真菌等,這些元素有助於保持沃土。
雖然苗床未必能提高種苗產量,在網路園藝論壇仍有不少爭論,但身為一個懶人,我保證這樣會大幅減少你需要花費在每一棵作物的勞務,同時提升土壤固碳量。這些都是苗床法的好處,也是我在書中值得一提的。

Don't dig

This one's often a little hard for traditional gardeners to grasp, but a strong case can be made for transitioning to a no-dig vegetable garden. By building raised beds which are NEVER walked on, heavily mulched and fed by top dressings of large amounts of organic matter, proponents of no-dig gardening say it protects vital soil life including worms, microbes and mychorrizal fungi which all play a part in maintaining soil fertility.

Whether no-dig gardening actually increases garden productivity per plant is a matter of much debate in the gardening forums online, but as a committed lazivore I can confirm that it greatly reduces the amount of physical labor you put in for each "unit" of harvest and increases the amount of carbon stored in the soil too. These are both yields of their own kind that are well worth celebrating in my book.

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蔬菜對溫度日照條件的要求

蔬菜對溫度日照條件的要求
全日照  8個小時日照 瓜類、茄果類、豆類、山藥、豆薯(地瓜)。番茄、黃瓜、茄子、辣椒等喜溫中、強光性
蔬菜夏秋季生產,玉米、青椒、西瓜、南瓜、西紅柿、茄子、芝麻、向日葵類。
其次是根莖類,如:馬鈴薯、甜菜、胡蘿蔔、白蘿蔔、甘藷、山藥等等。至少需半日照,才能生長,芋頭雖喜歡全日照,但比其他蔬菜耐蔭。 
需要中等光照大白菜、甘藍、芥菜、蒜、洋蔥。 

長日性蔬菜白菜、甘藍、芥菜、蘿蔔、胡蘿蔔、芹菜、菠菜、萵苣、蠶豆、豌豆、大蔥、洋蔥。

短日性蔬菜豇豆、扁豆、莧菜、空心菜。         

中光性蔬菜黃瓜、番茄、茄子、辣椒、菜豆

菜豆

菜豆喜溫暖,不耐高溫和霜凍。菜豆種子發芽的適溫為20-30℃;在40℃以上的高溫和10℃以下的低溫,種子不易發芽。幼苗生長適宜氣溫為18-25℃。花芽分化的適宜氣溫為20-25℃,過高或過低溫度易出現發育不完全的花蕾、落花。

菜豆對光照強度的要求較高。在適宜溫度條件下,光照充足則植株生長健壯,莖的節間短而分枝多,開花結莢比較多,而且有利於根部對磷肥的吸收。當光照強度減弱時,植株易徒長,莖的節間長,分枝少,葉質薄,而且開花結莢數少,易落花落莢。

菜豆根系強大,能耐一定程度乾旱,但喜中度濕潤土壤條件,要求水分供應適中,不耐澇。生長期適宜土壤濕度為田間最大持水量的60%-70%,空氣相對濕度以80%為宜。開花結莢期對水分最敏感,此期土壤乾旱對開花結莢有不良影響,開花數、結莢數及莢內種子數減少。土壤水分過大時,下部葉片黃化,早脫落。空氣濕度過大會引起徒長、結莢不良。

菜豆具有深根性和根瘤菌,對土壤的要求不甚嚴格,但仍以土層深厚肥沃、排水良好的輕砂壤土或粘質壤土為好。土壤過於粘重、低溫、排水和通氣不良則生長不良,炭疽病重。菜豆喜中性至微酸性土壤,適宜的土壤pH為5-7.0,其中以州6.2-6.8最適宜。菜豆最忌連作,生產中應實行2-3年輪作。

菜豆生育過程中,主要吸收鉀和氮較多,還要吸收一定量的磷和鈣,才能良好發育。結莢期吸收磷鉀量較大。磷鉀肥對菜豆植株的生長發育、根瘤菌的發育、花芽分化、開花結莢和種子的發育等均有影響。缺乏磷肥,菜豆嫩莢和種子的品質和產量就會降低。缺鈣,幼葉葉片捲曲,葉緣失綠和生長點死亡。缺硼,則根係不發達,影響根瘤菌固氮,使花和豆莢發育不良。 耐陰半陰(大概3-4小時日照) 應選擇耐陰的蔬菜種植,如萵…

錦鯉養殖基本知識

◎飼養與管理的重點 只要不是劇烈的變化,錦鯉很容易適應各水溫水質等環境的變化。並不是沒有大庭園就無法飼養,有人甚至在二樓陽台或頂樓陽台造水池飼養。然而我們是欣賞錦鯉雄壯豪邁之氣,因此水池盡量寬闊為宜,以水深1.2m以上為理想。魚池必須有底水排出,過濾循環等設備。用水不一定要取地下水,自來水也可以飼養。
<因為都市中有景觀安全的需求,及屋頂花園有荷重的需求,錦鯉池水深可以低到30cm左右。>
◎每天排水
A、糞或枯死的藻類全部送至過濾槽的話,耗氧量會增大,pH就下降,更會轉變為亞硝酸,增了過濾槽的負擔。為了盡量減輕過濾槽的負擔,每天至少把魚池的底水排水使固物排出去,把中間水送去沉澱槽及過濾槽。 
B、把固體廢物的魚糞集中排出,最好不要從池底打氣而是從排糞口的上方40~50公分打打氣。如此氣泡往上昇。池水產生對流。污物就集中於排糞口。
<可以設計水流把固體廢物盡量集中或排出到過濾系統中。>
◎過濾槽管理
A、細菌附著於濾材,分解固體廢物會消耗大量的氧。 
B、溶氧不足時,厭氧菌會把硝酸還原亞硝酸,或從碳酸氣發生沼氣,也會從硫酸分解產生硫化氫等有毒氣體。
<如果溶氧不足,可以優先把打氣設備放置到生化過濾槽中。>
◎溶氧要充份
A、水中溶氧不足的話,會影響錦鯉的生育,飼料的消化,,水質的維持等等。
B、硝酸,亞硝酸的濃度增高時,會影響溶氧量。所以優先去除硝酸及亞硝酸。
C、使用沸石可輕易去除硝酸,沸石量約等重於魚體總重量。
<沸石再生法,是將沸石浸泡25℃以上1:10食鹽水數小時,再以清水洗淨即可。>
◎水質的控制
水質硬度高的話,錦鯉肌膚經常會有少許充血的狀態。豔麗性也會慢慢消失,紅緋會上升。pH值低,肌膚變的很不好看,但是雖餵增色飼料,依然不見起色,徒增浪費。pH值7.1~7.5最適宜的。
◎鯉餌的重要性
良好的魚餌不會崩壞鯉的體型。餌的量也是在夏天水溫 高的時候,訂定停餌期間,才是整體來說使鯉變胖最重要的秘訣。如果還是想 要給很多餌的話,要增加循還量。錦鯉在水溫超過28度的時候,應給與相當於 鯉全體重量3%的餌。水溫25度時1.5%,水溫20度時0.3%,16度以下則要停止鯉餌,這就是鯉魚長得強壯的要訣。連續不斷地給鯉餌的話,引起內臟障礙, 而影響到鯉不會長壯,甚至導至體型的變歪。
◎魚病預防
水的管理與定期消毒都是很重要的步驟,…

連通管原理與應用

英文版, English version
中文版, Chinese version
西班牙文版, Espanol version 

連通管基本原理 1.連通管原理指的是,在一般開放的空間中,幾個液體容器的底部都相通的裝置,而若任一容器內注入液體,則當液體靜止時,各容器的液面必在同一水平面。



2.兩 端的大氣壓力一樣,但管內兩端的水受重力作用而各自下墜,下墜瞬間,在圓弧頂部拉出一個真空,因真空而有壓力差,此時兩端的大氣壓 力再次從兩端將兩管的水壓回,但壓回的力量是大氣壓力減去管內的水壓(F=(Patm-PH2O)*A),而長管內的水比短管內的水還要重,所以壓回的力 量是短管的壓力大於長管的壓力,所 以,虹吸管內的水就會不斷的由短管端流入而由長管端流出。



3.如果我們用兩根連通管,所以效率會變成兩倍。




4.如果用兩根連通管,但是其中一個連接抽水馬達,此時一根連通管是抽水,所以另一根把水送回,大氣壓力將兩管的水平衡,所 以,一個馬達可以有兩倍的動力,水就會不斷的循環。


問題1:請比較上連通管與下連通管的差異?
問題2:請問雙連通管時,管徑與高度差的關係?



簡易潮汐開關 (外部連通管) 1.由於水持續進入水箱,水在水箱和潮汐開關內以同樣的速度上升。(潮汐開關內的底部是連通的)。虹吸管是通到外部的。水會持續上升到外部的開口端。 2.一旦水上升到內部的開口端,它變成一個密封空間。由於水繼續上升,在水箱內水位繼續上升,但速度變慢。同時,水箱內水壓漸大。
3.由於水位接近高水位線,壓力在開關內鐘將水位上升到臨界,造成部份水會先進入管道。
(同時會將管道上端部份空氣帶出,因為空氣在管內流動,也是噪音最大的時候) 4.由於水在水箱到達高水位線後,體積空氣被迫壓縮管道,並透過虹吸作用,排出的空氣壓力後,進而開始大量排水。
(一旦開始大量排水,也是聲音最小的時候)
5.水會一直流出,直到水位低到讓潮汐開關吸入空氣。然後,潮汐開關回歸起始位置。
6.由於水持續進入水箱,水在水箱和潮汐開關內以同樣的速度上升。(潮汐開關內的底部是連通的)。虹吸管是通到外部的。水會持續上升到內部的開口端。
可以參考以下的影片


簡易鐘型潮汐開關
1.由於水持續進入水箱,水在水箱和潮汐開關內以同樣的速度上升。(潮汐開關內的底部是連通的)。虹吸管是通到外部的。水會持續上升到內部的開口端。 2.一旦水位上升到內部的開口端,直接…