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Natural Swimming Pools: More Beauty, No Chemicals

Natural Swimming Pools: More Beauty, No Chemicals

Keep your skin and the environment healthy with a pool that cleans itself, naturally

Natural swimming pools use plants or a combination of plants and sand filters to keep the water clean and clear without chemicals. They were developed in Austria and Germany in the 1980s and have since grown in popularity worldwide. They can be designed in a multitude of ways: Some look like natural ponds; others may be disguised as standard tiled pools.

Whatever look you are trying to achieve, the principles of function are the same for both natural swimming pools and traditional ones. But natural pools are better for your hair and skin because they’re chemical free.


Genus Loci Ecological Landscapes Inc.
How they work. Natural swimming pools rely on a constructed wetland of plants and gravel to filter the water in an area called the regeneration zone. This zone is like a water garden; a variety of plants selected by a natural pool specialist or a landscape architect create an ecosystem that cleans the pool water.


R. P. Marzilli & Company Landscape Contractor
How the zones interact. The regeneration zone’s size and depth are related to the volume of water to be cleaned. The planted zone is shallower than the swimming area. Clean water slowly flows from the planted zone into the swimming zone.

A specialized water skimmer removes large debris that falls on the water’s surface in the swim zone. The skimmer is fitted with a fine sieve that removes small debris before the water is circulated into a biological filter. Additional equipment, like UV light filters and filters that use sand to remove phosphorous, is helpful in maintaining the balance in a natural pool system.


Armond Aquatech Pools
How much space do you need? Natural swimming pools can be small enough for an urban yard or extra large for a rural property. The relationship between the regeneration and swimming zones can also vary depending on the space available. For instance, a rectilinear pool can be designed as the swimming area, with the water circulation apparatus running underground to the regeneration zone. In the most common setup, the regeneration zone is directly adjacent to the swimming zone, as shown here, with edges that allow for a specific volume of water to flow over the edge. Generally, the size of the zones should be equal for adequate water cleansing.


Robins Nest Aquatics
What plants do you use? The plants will vary depending on climate and location. The regeneration zone relies on the surface area of the plants’ roots and the gravel substrate to create a home for beneficial bacteria.

Three types of aquatic plants are used:

Floating: Including flowering species of the lotus and water lily
Emergent: Occupying the water margins of the pool; they include sedges, rushes and grasses
Submerged: Are rooted into the substrate and help oxygenate the waterThere are common natives for each type. At the edge of the regeneration zone, you have the option to continue a natural look with a wetland gradient of native plants. Species that thrive in moist, periodically inundated soil will perform best around the edges of a natural pool.


Falon Land Studio LLC


Cost. The construction cost per square foot is the same for natural swimming pools and traditional pools. However, a natural swimming pool is typically twice the size of a traditional pool because of the regeneration zone.

A natural swimming pool requires different maintenance compared to chlorinated pools, but the overall cost is about the same.

Larry Carnes, owner of Reflections Water Gardens, says, “Natural swimming pools are completely chemical free, which means that hundreds if not thousands of dollars normally required for balancing water chemistry and countless man-hours are saved each swimming season; however, this time and money is made up for in the care of the water garden.”

Maintenance and installation. Daily maintenance is similar to that for a traditional pool, but the focus is on tending the water garden. The skimmer should be cleared of debris, and the water garden plants occasionally need trimming. Insects and frogs stay within the regeneration zone (that’s their habitat) and are not attracted to the swimming zone. Depending on your climate, the garden may need rejuvenation in spring with the addition of new plants.

When winter comes, cut the plants back and drain and plug the mechanical equipment to prevent freeze damage. The pool itself does not need to be drained.

The pool basin can be constructed any time of year, weather permitting. It is typical for pools to be built in autumn in preparation for a spring planting of the water garden. Planting in spring gives the water garden a chance to acclimate to cycles of the seasons.


Reflections Water Gardens
Design Options

Naturalistic or architectural. The naturalistic-style pool has a stone or gravel bottom with sloped sides. A gradually sloped edge leading to the water also creates an experience more akin to a wilderness adventure, because you can walk into the body of water. An architectural-style pool made of cast-in-place concrete with horizontal sides and stairs for entry works great as well. Aesthetically, you and your designer can create whatever look you want: an architectural pool with clean lines or a pool that looks like a natural pond.


Symbiose Paysage Inc.
Decking. Wood decks make a beautiful defined edge for a natural swimming pool. Other typical pool decking materials, like travertine pavers or exposed aggregate concrete, can also create a surface for your favorite lounge chair or poolside café table. The pool deck can occupy the area between the swimming and regeneration zones as a way to create separation between the water garden and the swimming area. Other people may prefer to have the planted zone next to the swimming zone to create a wilderness-style pond.

Ultimately it’s the shape of the pool basin, materials and expression of the edges that will determine the style of your natural pool. I recommend that you hire a talented landscape architect who can incorporate a natural pool into an overall backyard-oasis design plan. A local water garden and natural pool company will be your source for ongoing maintenance supplies throughout the year.


R. P. Marzilli & Company Landscape Contractor
Tell us: Do you have a natural swimming pool? Post your photos in the Comments and tell us about your experience.

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蔬菜對溫度日照條件的要求

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全日照  8個小時日照 瓜類、茄果類、豆類、山藥、豆薯(地瓜)。番茄、黃瓜、茄子、辣椒等喜溫中、強光性
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其次是根莖類,如:馬鈴薯、甜菜、胡蘿蔔、白蘿蔔、甘藷、山藥等等。至少需半日照,才能生長,芋頭雖喜歡全日照,但比其他蔬菜耐蔭。 
需要中等光照大白菜、甘藍、芥菜、蒜、洋蔥。 

長日性蔬菜白菜、甘藍、芥菜、蘿蔔、胡蘿蔔、芹菜、菠菜、萵苣、蠶豆、豌豆、大蔥、洋蔥。

短日性蔬菜豇豆、扁豆、莧菜、空心菜。         

中光性蔬菜黃瓜、番茄、茄子、辣椒、菜豆

菜豆

菜豆喜溫暖,不耐高溫和霜凍。菜豆種子發芽的適溫為20-30℃;在40℃以上的高溫和10℃以下的低溫,種子不易發芽。幼苗生長適宜氣溫為18-25℃。花芽分化的適宜氣溫為20-25℃,過高或過低溫度易出現發育不完全的花蕾、落花。

菜豆對光照強度的要求較高。在適宜溫度條件下,光照充足則植株生長健壯,莖的節間短而分枝多,開花結莢比較多,而且有利於根部對磷肥的吸收。當光照強度減弱時,植株易徒長,莖的節間長,分枝少,葉質薄,而且開花結莢數少,易落花落莢。

菜豆根系強大,能耐一定程度乾旱,但喜中度濕潤土壤條件,要求水分供應適中,不耐澇。生長期適宜土壤濕度為田間最大持水量的60%-70%,空氣相對濕度以80%為宜。開花結莢期對水分最敏感,此期土壤乾旱對開花結莢有不良影響,開花數、結莢數及莢內種子數減少。土壤水分過大時,下部葉片黃化,早脫落。空氣濕度過大會引起徒長、結莢不良。

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黑檸檬

黑檸檬
Dried lemons are actually limes and are used heavily in Persian Gulf and also Iranian cuisine where they add a strong bitter flavor in addition to sourness. They are made by boiling ripe limes in salt water, and then sun drying until the insides turn black. The outside color varies from tan to black. They are sold whole or ground.

Black Lime is a spice used in Middle Eastern dishes. It is made by boiling fresh lime in salt water and sun drying until the insides turn black. The outside color varies from tan to black. It is sold whole or ground.

黑檸檬實際上是使用萊姆,並且在波斯灣和伊朗料理中被大量使用,除了酸味外,它們還添加了強烈的苦味。它們是利用鹽水煮成熟萊姆,然後曬乾,直到內部變黑。外部顏色從棕褐色變化到黑色。他們可以整顆或切片販售。
黑檸檬是用於中東菜餚的香料。它是通過在鹽水中煮沸新鮮的檸檬並經天然乾燥,直到內部變黑。外觀從棕褐色變成黑色。
USE Black limes are usually used in legume, seafood or meat dishes. They are pierced, peeled or crushed before adding them to the dish. After cooking they become softer and edible. They can also be powdered and added to rice dishes. Powdered black lime is also used as an ingredient in Gulf-…

為何冰箱冷凍室非得是零下18度?

為何冰箱冷凍室非得是零下18度? 不少家庭的冰箱有led面板,可顯示冷藏室和冷凍室溫度。每次看到那個零下18℃,不少人,包括筆者在內就會禁不住提出一個小疑問:為什麼冷凍室溫度非得是零下18℃?最多零下1℃不就結冰了嗎?搞這麼低溫度實在是浪費電呢。

聰明如很多人是這樣推測的

百思不得其解,於是很多人,包括筆者在內就開始推測後面的機制了。冷凍室的零下18℃其實不費電,相反,它是節約電力的一個好措施。為何?

冰箱隔一段時間,內部溫度升高後,它就要啟動壓縮機,嗡嗡嗡的。頻繁啟動壓縮機不僅耗電,冰箱的壽命也會降低,還有就是很吵人。怎麼辦?簡單,先把冷凍室的溫度搞得低低的,比如零下18℃左右。


然後,冷凍室的冷氣往上走,來到冷藏室,如此,就能長時間保持冷藏室的溫度處於0到8℃以內了。

待冷凍室的冷氣散失過多,溫度升高到零下幾度時,再啟動冰箱的壓縮機把溫度再次降到零下18℃,如此,冰箱的啟動次數就變少了。

實際是這樣嗎?很遺憾,不是。

原因之一:不一樣的水

水到零度以下就結冰了,這是絕大多數人的認識。然而仔細一想,這不適用於冰箱的冷凍室。因為冷凍室存放的不是上百升礦泉水,而是各種各樣的食物。

食物中含有大量水這沒錯,但這些水同時含有大量的鹽、糖等物質。就像每1升海水中大約含有35克鹽,所以平均起來,要到零下1.33℃時海水才會結冰。

因此,要想把食物凍結,並不是溫度只要達到水的冰點就可以,得保證足夠低的溫度,食物中的水才能凍結,這很重要,因為食物中只要有液態水存在,這就等於是為各種細菌的繁殖提供了必備條件。

圖為牛肉薄片在不同溫度和不同時間內測得的牛肉中凍結水量的曲線。

當牛肉薄片的溫度為零下4℃時,只有70%的水分被凍結;溫度下降到零下9℃左右時,也還有3%的水分未凍結;即使牛肉薄片的溫度降低到零下18℃時,也不是100%的水分都被凍結住。

原因之二:嗜冷微生物

根據微生物對不同溫度的適應範圍,可將微生物分為三大類,嗜熱菌、嗜溫菌和嗜冷菌。在食物的冷藏和冷凍過程中,我們面對的「敵人」是嗜溫菌和嗜冷菌。

一般來說,能引起食物腐敗和食物致毒的嗜溫菌,在低於3 ℃情況下不產生毒素,當然,個別菌種例外。

而對於嗜冷菌,一般得在零下10 ℃到零下12 ℃時才會停止生長。

有的黴菌甚至要到零下15~零下18 ℃時才會停止生長。

瞧,我們以為,零下幾攝氏度後微生物就被殺死或停止繁殖了,但…