跳到主要內容

保鮮甜蘿勒的要訣

如何保鮮甜蘿勒

If you grow your own basil, sometimes you may experience a glut and need to preserve that abundance of extra leaves. There are various ways to do this effectively, provided you're okay with a change in flavor or usage.

Method1 Short-term refrigerator storage
There are several options for short-term refrigerator storage:

1
Place fresh basil into a polythene bag. Keep in the refrigerator for a short period of time.



2
Place fresh basil in a vase of water. Place in the refrigerator and use quickly.


3
Place fresh basil in a proprietary herb storage device. Follow the instructions accompanying the specialized storage item.




Method2 Freezing basil


There are various easy ways to freeze basil.

1
Prepare the basil for freezing. Clean and dry the basil:
First, remove all leaves from the stems. If you're going to try out the second freezing method, then you will probably want to leave some of the buds intact. The stems should be discarded.
Rinse the leaves thoroughly, taking care not to bruise them.
Finally, remove excess water from the leaves by using a salad spinner or laying them out on towels to dry.


2
Freeze the basil by starting a pesto sauce. Place 1 or 2 handfuls of the basil in your food processor, then chop or purée the basil leaves with extra virgin olive oil and a bit of salt. Coating the basil pieces with oil protects them from air so they can maintain their color and flavor. Pour the purée into small air-tight containers and add some extra olive oil on top. After defrosting the purée, re-process adding your favorite pesto ingredients.


3
Freeze the basil as is. This method takes a little more time, but is still an easy way to freeze basil. This method keeps whole individual leaves or plant buds intact to use as garnish.
Put prepared leaves and buds on trays in the freezer for about one to two hours.
Once they are frozen, put them into airtight containers. Do not overcrowd them because they will lose their shape.
After defrosting for use, you can julienne the leaves or use them whole as garnish on pasta dishes or soups.


4
Freeze the basil using a milk carton. This method is the easiest of all the freezing methods.
Simply pack the leaves into a cleaned out milk carton with the top cut down.
Seal the top closed.
Use quart (950ml) sized cartons and then put the sealed carton inside a Ziploc baggy to make it air-tight.
When you want to use the basil for cooking, cut off a slice of the carton and re-store the remainder as it was. The frozen leaves are great to use in sauces.




Method3Salting basil


This is a very traditional pre-refrigeration method for keeping basil.

1
Prepare the salt. Sprinkle 1cm or half an inch of salt into the base of a clean and dry crock, jar or ceramic storage container with lid.


2
Have the basil leaves ready to add. Make sure they're clean and dry.


3
Layer the basil leaves into the crock. Sprinkle a light layer of salt over each layer of basil leaves. Continue this way until all the leaves have been added.
About every 10 or so layers, press down gently to slightly firm but not crush the layers of leaves.


4
Fill to within 5cm or 2 inches from the top. Press firmly but gently. Finish by pouring in a lot more salt to compact everything down.
Shake and jolt the crock a bit to help ease the salt into all the cracks and crevices between the layers.


5
Store. Place the crock in a cool and dry spot. The pantry is often ideal, or a cellar. Leave as long as you like.


6
To use, simply remove the leaves needed and restore any removed salt layer.Shake the salt off the leaves then cook with them as usual.




Method4Steeping basil in olive oil


1
Clean the basil leaves and allow to dry.


2
Place in a suitable storage container.


3
Sprinkle with salt. Shake through to cover in salt.


4
Fill the container with olive oil.


5
Cover the container. Place in the fridge and leave. Stored in this manner, the basil leaves will remain in great condition for use over the coming months.


6
Use as usual according to your recipe. Both the leaves and the oil (now infused with basil) can be used for cooking.




Method5Basil vinegar


Vinegar makes an excellent preservative. By adding basil, you get a terrific herbal based vinegar that can be used in many salads and recipes.

1
Pick fresh basil leaves. Ideally, pick them after the morning dew has dried but before the sun has dried out the volatile oils that make basil taste so great.


2
Clean the leaves if necessary. Dry before using.


3
Add 15g/ 1/2 ounce/ 1/4 cup of fresh basil leaves to a suitable storage container.A lidded jar is a good option, such as a mason jar or a jar with a clip-on lid.


4
Add 2 cups of white or red wine or cider vinegar. Be sure to cover the basil.


5
Seal or clip on the lid. Set aside for 4 weeks in a cool, dark place.


6
Use. Add to various recipes that call for vinegar, such as pickling, salad dressings and savory dishes.
Strain any leaves out when using and discard them. Their flavor will now be imparted to the vinegar.




Method6Drying basil in a bunch


Dried basil isn't the best preservation method as the flavor diminishes considerably but it's still an option that is better than losing your glut of basil! The trick to good drying of basil is to dry the leaves quickly and evenly, so as to preserve the flavor as best as possible.

1
Dry the basil before it flowers. Basil will flower after all the leaves on one stem are fully grown, but the herb loses some of its flavor after the flowering occurs. The flowers appear in the middle of a bunch of leaves in a pyramid shape. Prep and dry the basil once all the leaves have sprouted, but before you see flowers on the stems so your dried basil will retain its full flavor.


2
Cut the basil leaves from the stems. Separate bunches of basil leaves and cut the individual leaves from the larger stem. Separating them will help you lay them flat and clean them properly. Leave a small length of stem, no more than an inch, at the bottom of each leaf to help you bundle them and tie them together.


3
Rinse the leaves well. Rinse cut basil leaves under cold water before drying them. This will remove any dirt, chemicals or other debris that may have fallen onto the leaves while growing or while being shipped if your basil is store-bought.


4
Dry the rinsed leaves. Lay the rinsed leaves on a paper towel and gently pat them dry with a second paper towel. Removing excess moisture before drying basil will prevent molding during the drying process.


5
Gather leaves in bunches. Group the prepped leaves in a bundle and tie them together at their stems with a rubber band or twist tie. Make more than one bundle if you have lots of basil leaves.


6
Hang the leaves to dry. Hang the bundles of basil from a hook or wall tack to dry. You don't have to hang them in your kitchen, but make sure you choose a place with freely circulating air and moderate sunlight to aid the drying process. Choose a room with a window that can be opened to let air and sunlight in and preferably one where bugs won't be able to get to your drying herbs.


7
Let the basil hang for two weeks. Your basil will be dried and ready to use in about two weeks or when the leaves are dark green, dry and brittle to the touch. If the leaves or stems still feel a little flexible, let them hang another week.
Remove the rubber band or twist tie, separate the dried basil bundle and crumble the dried leaves with your fingers. Store them in a labeled jar or container for future use.


8
Harvest your dried herbs.



Method7Drying basil on screens


Using a screen, such as a clean window screen, is great for ensuring air circulation and even drying.

1
Place fresh basil leaves across a clean window screen. Keep them apart and don't lay them over one another.


2
Place a sheet of cheesecloth over the layer of basil leaves. This will stop them from blowing off and protects them from dust. Cheesecloth is light enough not to interfere with the air circulation.


3
Put the whole screen into a drying area. Choose a place that is away from people traffic and pets and that is warm, dry and dark. It should also be well ventilated.


4
Leave to dry. This will take anywhere from 4 to 14 days, depending on the time of year and your local humidity.


5
Finish drying in the oven. After the leaves feel crisp when you touch them, place them single layer on a baking sheet. Place in an oven set to 100ºF/38ºC and leave the door open slightly. Heat for about 10 minutes. This will complete the drying process.


6
Let cool. Then place in an airtight storage jar. Label with the date and name. For the first week or so after adding to the jar, check for moisture. If you see any, remove and dry again in the oven. If you don't do this, the basil leaves will turn moldy.
Ensure that the leaves are completely cooled before adding them to the jar. Any warmth will transfer to moisture.


7
Store away from heat and light. Use within one year of drying.



Method8Turning basil into pesto


While pesto changes the flavor radically because of the other additions, you can still tell it's basil. Great for pasta, dip flavoring and as a spread. This recipe is basic. While the traditional mixture requires olive oil, pine nuts and Parmesan cheese, this recipe allows you to play with different additions the more confident you get with making it:

1
Use 4 parts fresh basil, 1 part quality oil (olive/macadamia/walnut, etc. oils), 1 part nuts (pine nuts/walnuts/pecans/cashews, etc.), 1/2 part grated hard cheese and 1/8 part sea salt.


2
Grind everything together in a large mortar and pestle. Alternatively, process or blend.


3
Store in the refrigerator for up to a month. The oil will keep things nicely fresh but don't keep it too long, as it can turn rancid after a time.



Method9Basil vodka


Many things can be "stored" in alcohol, although this one is more for the drinking! It can also be used as cooking liquid where relevant, such as in a stir-fry.

1
Pick the basil leaves. Do this when they're just dried from dew but have not yet had the sun's heat on them. You'll need about 2 dozen leaves for this recipe.
Wash, clean and dry as needed.


2
Pack the basil leaves into a suitable clean jar. Pack loosely.


3
Pour your vodka of choice over the leaves. Cover the leaves and fill the jar about 4/5ths.


4
Seal. Put the covered jar into the refrigerator for 24 hours to infuse. Leave as long as you like beyond this time, as the flavor will simply continue to intensify.


5
Use. Strain the basil leaves out when using the vodka. You can simply add them back to the unused vodka to keep infusing but don't include them in your cocktails or neat vodka drink as the flavors are now in the liquid.



Method10Preserving basil seeds


Finally, but importantly, perhaps you're wanting to store next season's bumper crop of basil. By harvesting and storing the basil seeds, you can ensure a repeat performance of your favorite basil crop.

1
Let at least one basil plant go to flower in your garden or in a container that is situated outdoors. Allow the bees and other pollinators to do their thing.
You'll know the seeds are ripe when a gentle shake of a flowering head in your hand releases tiny black specks.


2
Cut the flowering spikes of the plant in late summer or early autumn/fall. Gently place the spikes into a paper bag.
Don't shake the spikes.


3
Tie the top of the paper bag up with string. Hang in a warm and dry area for at least a week. When the stems of the flower spike have dried, the seeds can be harvested.


4
Gently rub the flower heads while still in the bag. Tip the seeds into a bowl or pan. Sift out the debris, stems, etc., and discard. Pour the seeds into a small jar, such as a spice jar, label and store. Use next season.

Tips
In all cases, only store in glass or ceramic. Plastic or metallic containers can contaminate the storage medium and spoil the taste.
Basil's flavor is quickly destroyed by heat. It is best used as a garnish, but many of the storage methods outlined here can actually help to intensify the basil flavor, making it go further and infuse dishes better.

Things You'll Need
Suitable storage containers (glass, ceramics, etc. are usually better than plastics for long-term storage)

留言

這個網誌中的熱門文章

蔬菜對溫度日照條件的要求

蔬菜對溫度日照條件的要求
全日照  8個小時日照 瓜類、茄果類、豆類、山藥、豆薯(地瓜)。番茄、黃瓜、茄子、辣椒等喜溫中、強光性
蔬菜夏秋季生產,玉米、青椒、西瓜、南瓜、西紅柿、茄子、芝麻、向日葵類。
其次是根莖類,如:馬鈴薯、甜菜、胡蘿蔔、白蘿蔔、甘藷、山藥等等。至少需半日照,才能生長,芋頭雖喜歡全日照,但比其他蔬菜耐蔭。 
需要中等光照大白菜、甘藍、芥菜、蒜、洋蔥。 

長日性蔬菜白菜、甘藍、芥菜、蘿蔔、胡蘿蔔、芹菜、菠菜、萵苣、蠶豆、豌豆、大蔥、洋蔥。

短日性蔬菜豇豆、扁豆、莧菜、空心菜。         

中光性蔬菜黃瓜、番茄、茄子、辣椒、菜豆

菜豆

菜豆喜溫暖,不耐高溫和霜凍。菜豆種子發芽的適溫為20-30℃;在40℃以上的高溫和10℃以下的低溫,種子不易發芽。幼苗生長適宜氣溫為18-25℃。花芽分化的適宜氣溫為20-25℃,過高或過低溫度易出現發育不完全的花蕾、落花。

菜豆對光照強度的要求較高。在適宜溫度條件下,光照充足則植株生長健壯,莖的節間短而分枝多,開花結莢比較多,而且有利於根部對磷肥的吸收。當光照強度減弱時,植株易徒長,莖的節間長,分枝少,葉質薄,而且開花結莢數少,易落花落莢。

菜豆根系強大,能耐一定程度乾旱,但喜中度濕潤土壤條件,要求水分供應適中,不耐澇。生長期適宜土壤濕度為田間最大持水量的60%-70%,空氣相對濕度以80%為宜。開花結莢期對水分最敏感,此期土壤乾旱對開花結莢有不良影響,開花數、結莢數及莢內種子數減少。土壤水分過大時,下部葉片黃化,早脫落。空氣濕度過大會引起徒長、結莢不良。

菜豆具有深根性和根瘤菌,對土壤的要求不甚嚴格,但仍以土層深厚肥沃、排水良好的輕砂壤土或粘質壤土為好。土壤過於粘重、低溫、排水和通氣不良則生長不良,炭疽病重。菜豆喜中性至微酸性土壤,適宜的土壤pH為5-7.0,其中以州6.2-6.8最適宜。菜豆最忌連作,生產中應實行2-3年輪作。

菜豆生育過程中,主要吸收鉀和氮較多,還要吸收一定量的磷和鈣,才能良好發育。結莢期吸收磷鉀量較大。磷鉀肥對菜豆植株的生長發育、根瘤菌的發育、花芽分化、開花結莢和種子的發育等均有影響。缺乏磷肥,菜豆嫩莢和種子的品質和產量就會降低。缺鈣,幼葉葉片捲曲,葉緣失綠和生長點死亡。缺硼,則根係不發達,影響根瘤菌固氮,使花和豆莢發育不良。 耐陰半陰(大概3-4小時日照) 應選擇耐陰的蔬菜種植,如萵…

黑檸檬

黑檸檬
Dried lemons are actually limes and are used heavily in Persian Gulf and also Iranian cuisine where they add a strong bitter flavor in addition to sourness. They are made by boiling ripe limes in salt water, and then sun drying until the insides turn black. The outside color varies from tan to black. They are sold whole or ground.

Black Lime is a spice used in Middle Eastern dishes. It is made by boiling fresh lime in salt water and sun drying until the insides turn black. The outside color varies from tan to black. It is sold whole or ground.

黑檸檬實際上是使用萊姆,並且在波斯灣和伊朗料理中被大量使用,除了酸味外,它們還添加了強烈的苦味。它們是利用鹽水煮成熟萊姆,然後曬乾,直到內部變黑。外部顏色從棕褐色變化到黑色。他們可以整顆或切片販售。
黑檸檬是用於中東菜餚的香料。它是通過在鹽水中煮沸新鮮的檸檬並經天然乾燥,直到內部變黑。外觀從棕褐色變成黑色。
USE Black limes are usually used in legume, seafood or meat dishes. They are pierced, peeled or crushed before adding them to the dish. After cooking they become softer and edible. They can also be powdered and added to rice dishes. Powdered black lime is also used as an ingredient in Gulf-…

為何冰箱冷凍室非得是零下18度?

為何冰箱冷凍室非得是零下18度? 不少家庭的冰箱有led面板,可顯示冷藏室和冷凍室溫度。每次看到那個零下18℃,不少人,包括筆者在內就會禁不住提出一個小疑問:為什麼冷凍室溫度非得是零下18℃?最多零下1℃不就結冰了嗎?搞這麼低溫度實在是浪費電呢。

聰明如很多人是這樣推測的

百思不得其解,於是很多人,包括筆者在內就開始推測後面的機制了。冷凍室的零下18℃其實不費電,相反,它是節約電力的一個好措施。為何?

冰箱隔一段時間,內部溫度升高後,它就要啟動壓縮機,嗡嗡嗡的。頻繁啟動壓縮機不僅耗電,冰箱的壽命也會降低,還有就是很吵人。怎麼辦?簡單,先把冷凍室的溫度搞得低低的,比如零下18℃左右。


然後,冷凍室的冷氣往上走,來到冷藏室,如此,就能長時間保持冷藏室的溫度處於0到8℃以內了。

待冷凍室的冷氣散失過多,溫度升高到零下幾度時,再啟動冰箱的壓縮機把溫度再次降到零下18℃,如此,冰箱的啟動次數就變少了。

實際是這樣嗎?很遺憾,不是。

原因之一:不一樣的水

水到零度以下就結冰了,這是絕大多數人的認識。然而仔細一想,這不適用於冰箱的冷凍室。因為冷凍室存放的不是上百升礦泉水,而是各種各樣的食物。

食物中含有大量水這沒錯,但這些水同時含有大量的鹽、糖等物質。就像每1升海水中大約含有35克鹽,所以平均起來,要到零下1.33℃時海水才會結冰。

因此,要想把食物凍結,並不是溫度只要達到水的冰點就可以,得保證足夠低的溫度,食物中的水才能凍結,這很重要,因為食物中只要有液態水存在,這就等於是為各種細菌的繁殖提供了必備條件。

圖為牛肉薄片在不同溫度和不同時間內測得的牛肉中凍結水量的曲線。

當牛肉薄片的溫度為零下4℃時,只有70%的水分被凍結;溫度下降到零下9℃左右時,也還有3%的水分未凍結;即使牛肉薄片的溫度降低到零下18℃時,也不是100%的水分都被凍結住。

原因之二:嗜冷微生物

根據微生物對不同溫度的適應範圍,可將微生物分為三大類,嗜熱菌、嗜溫菌和嗜冷菌。在食物的冷藏和冷凍過程中,我們面對的「敵人」是嗜溫菌和嗜冷菌。

一般來說,能引起食物腐敗和食物致毒的嗜溫菌,在低於3 ℃情況下不產生毒素,當然,個別菌種例外。

而對於嗜冷菌,一般得在零下10 ℃到零下12 ℃時才會停止生長。

有的黴菌甚至要到零下15~零下18 ℃時才會停止生長。

瞧,我們以為,零下幾攝氏度後微生物就被殺死或停止繁殖了,但…