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保鮮甜蘿勒的要訣

如何保鮮甜蘿勒

If you grow your own basil, sometimes you may experience a glut and need to preserve that abundance of extra leaves. There are various ways to do this effectively, provided you're okay with a change in flavor or usage.

Method1 Short-term refrigerator storage
There are several options for short-term refrigerator storage:

1
Place fresh basil into a polythene bag. Keep in the refrigerator for a short period of time.



2
Place fresh basil in a vase of water. Place in the refrigerator and use quickly.


3
Place fresh basil in a proprietary herb storage device. Follow the instructions accompanying the specialized storage item.




Method2 Freezing basil


There are various easy ways to freeze basil.

1
Prepare the basil for freezing. Clean and dry the basil:
First, remove all leaves from the stems. If you're going to try out the second freezing method, then you will probably want to leave some of the buds intact. The stems should be discarded.
Rinse the leaves thoroughly, taking care not to bruise them.
Finally, remove excess water from the leaves by using a salad spinner or laying them out on towels to dry.


2
Freeze the basil by starting a pesto sauce. Place 1 or 2 handfuls of the basil in your food processor, then chop or purée the basil leaves with extra virgin olive oil and a bit of salt. Coating the basil pieces with oil protects them from air so they can maintain their color and flavor. Pour the purée into small air-tight containers and add some extra olive oil on top. After defrosting the purée, re-process adding your favorite pesto ingredients.


3
Freeze the basil as is. This method takes a little more time, but is still an easy way to freeze basil. This method keeps whole individual leaves or plant buds intact to use as garnish.
Put prepared leaves and buds on trays in the freezer for about one to two hours.
Once they are frozen, put them into airtight containers. Do not overcrowd them because they will lose their shape.
After defrosting for use, you can julienne the leaves or use them whole as garnish on pasta dishes or soups.


4
Freeze the basil using a milk carton. This method is the easiest of all the freezing methods.
Simply pack the leaves into a cleaned out milk carton with the top cut down.
Seal the top closed.
Use quart (950ml) sized cartons and then put the sealed carton inside a Ziploc baggy to make it air-tight.
When you want to use the basil for cooking, cut off a slice of the carton and re-store the remainder as it was. The frozen leaves are great to use in sauces.




Method3Salting basil


This is a very traditional pre-refrigeration method for keeping basil.

1
Prepare the salt. Sprinkle 1cm or half an inch of salt into the base of a clean and dry crock, jar or ceramic storage container with lid.


2
Have the basil leaves ready to add. Make sure they're clean and dry.


3
Layer the basil leaves into the crock. Sprinkle a light layer of salt over each layer of basil leaves. Continue this way until all the leaves have been added.
About every 10 or so layers, press down gently to slightly firm but not crush the layers of leaves.


4
Fill to within 5cm or 2 inches from the top. Press firmly but gently. Finish by pouring in a lot more salt to compact everything down.
Shake and jolt the crock a bit to help ease the salt into all the cracks and crevices between the layers.


5
Store. Place the crock in a cool and dry spot. The pantry is often ideal, or a cellar. Leave as long as you like.


6
To use, simply remove the leaves needed and restore any removed salt layer.Shake the salt off the leaves then cook with them as usual.




Method4Steeping basil in olive oil


1
Clean the basil leaves and allow to dry.


2
Place in a suitable storage container.


3
Sprinkle with salt. Shake through to cover in salt.


4
Fill the container with olive oil.


5
Cover the container. Place in the fridge and leave. Stored in this manner, the basil leaves will remain in great condition for use over the coming months.


6
Use as usual according to your recipe. Both the leaves and the oil (now infused with basil) can be used for cooking.




Method5Basil vinegar


Vinegar makes an excellent preservative. By adding basil, you get a terrific herbal based vinegar that can be used in many salads and recipes.

1
Pick fresh basil leaves. Ideally, pick them after the morning dew has dried but before the sun has dried out the volatile oils that make basil taste so great.


2
Clean the leaves if necessary. Dry before using.


3
Add 15g/ 1/2 ounce/ 1/4 cup of fresh basil leaves to a suitable storage container.A lidded jar is a good option, such as a mason jar or a jar with a clip-on lid.


4
Add 2 cups of white or red wine or cider vinegar. Be sure to cover the basil.


5
Seal or clip on the lid. Set aside for 4 weeks in a cool, dark place.


6
Use. Add to various recipes that call for vinegar, such as pickling, salad dressings and savory dishes.
Strain any leaves out when using and discard them. Their flavor will now be imparted to the vinegar.




Method6Drying basil in a bunch


Dried basil isn't the best preservation method as the flavor diminishes considerably but it's still an option that is better than losing your glut of basil! The trick to good drying of basil is to dry the leaves quickly and evenly, so as to preserve the flavor as best as possible.

1
Dry the basil before it flowers. Basil will flower after all the leaves on one stem are fully grown, but the herb loses some of its flavor after the flowering occurs. The flowers appear in the middle of a bunch of leaves in a pyramid shape. Prep and dry the basil once all the leaves have sprouted, but before you see flowers on the stems so your dried basil will retain its full flavor.


2
Cut the basil leaves from the stems. Separate bunches of basil leaves and cut the individual leaves from the larger stem. Separating them will help you lay them flat and clean them properly. Leave a small length of stem, no more than an inch, at the bottom of each leaf to help you bundle them and tie them together.


3
Rinse the leaves well. Rinse cut basil leaves under cold water before drying them. This will remove any dirt, chemicals or other debris that may have fallen onto the leaves while growing or while being shipped if your basil is store-bought.


4
Dry the rinsed leaves. Lay the rinsed leaves on a paper towel and gently pat them dry with a second paper towel. Removing excess moisture before drying basil will prevent molding during the drying process.


5
Gather leaves in bunches. Group the prepped leaves in a bundle and tie them together at their stems with a rubber band or twist tie. Make more than one bundle if you have lots of basil leaves.


6
Hang the leaves to dry. Hang the bundles of basil from a hook or wall tack to dry. You don't have to hang them in your kitchen, but make sure you choose a place with freely circulating air and moderate sunlight to aid the drying process. Choose a room with a window that can be opened to let air and sunlight in and preferably one where bugs won't be able to get to your drying herbs.


7
Let the basil hang for two weeks. Your basil will be dried and ready to use in about two weeks or when the leaves are dark green, dry and brittle to the touch. If the leaves or stems still feel a little flexible, let them hang another week.
Remove the rubber band or twist tie, separate the dried basil bundle and crumble the dried leaves with your fingers. Store them in a labeled jar or container for future use.


8
Harvest your dried herbs.



Method7Drying basil on screens


Using a screen, such as a clean window screen, is great for ensuring air circulation and even drying.

1
Place fresh basil leaves across a clean window screen. Keep them apart and don't lay them over one another.


2
Place a sheet of cheesecloth over the layer of basil leaves. This will stop them from blowing off and protects them from dust. Cheesecloth is light enough not to interfere with the air circulation.


3
Put the whole screen into a drying area. Choose a place that is away from people traffic and pets and that is warm, dry and dark. It should also be well ventilated.


4
Leave to dry. This will take anywhere from 4 to 14 days, depending on the time of year and your local humidity.


5
Finish drying in the oven. After the leaves feel crisp when you touch them, place them single layer on a baking sheet. Place in an oven set to 100ºF/38ºC and leave the door open slightly. Heat for about 10 minutes. This will complete the drying process.


6
Let cool. Then place in an airtight storage jar. Label with the date and name. For the first week or so after adding to the jar, check for moisture. If you see any, remove and dry again in the oven. If you don't do this, the basil leaves will turn moldy.
Ensure that the leaves are completely cooled before adding them to the jar. Any warmth will transfer to moisture.


7
Store away from heat and light. Use within one year of drying.



Method8Turning basil into pesto


While pesto changes the flavor radically because of the other additions, you can still tell it's basil. Great for pasta, dip flavoring and as a spread. This recipe is basic. While the traditional mixture requires olive oil, pine nuts and Parmesan cheese, this recipe allows you to play with different additions the more confident you get with making it:

1
Use 4 parts fresh basil, 1 part quality oil (olive/macadamia/walnut, etc. oils), 1 part nuts (pine nuts/walnuts/pecans/cashews, etc.), 1/2 part grated hard cheese and 1/8 part sea salt.


2
Grind everything together in a large mortar and pestle. Alternatively, process or blend.


3
Store in the refrigerator for up to a month. The oil will keep things nicely fresh but don't keep it too long, as it can turn rancid after a time.



Method9Basil vodka


Many things can be "stored" in alcohol, although this one is more for the drinking! It can also be used as cooking liquid where relevant, such as in a stir-fry.

1
Pick the basil leaves. Do this when they're just dried from dew but have not yet had the sun's heat on them. You'll need about 2 dozen leaves for this recipe.
Wash, clean and dry as needed.


2
Pack the basil leaves into a suitable clean jar. Pack loosely.


3
Pour your vodka of choice over the leaves. Cover the leaves and fill the jar about 4/5ths.


4
Seal. Put the covered jar into the refrigerator for 24 hours to infuse. Leave as long as you like beyond this time, as the flavor will simply continue to intensify.


5
Use. Strain the basil leaves out when using the vodka. You can simply add them back to the unused vodka to keep infusing but don't include them in your cocktails or neat vodka drink as the flavors are now in the liquid.



Method10Preserving basil seeds


Finally, but importantly, perhaps you're wanting to store next season's bumper crop of basil. By harvesting and storing the basil seeds, you can ensure a repeat performance of your favorite basil crop.

1
Let at least one basil plant go to flower in your garden or in a container that is situated outdoors. Allow the bees and other pollinators to do their thing.
You'll know the seeds are ripe when a gentle shake of a flowering head in your hand releases tiny black specks.


2
Cut the flowering spikes of the plant in late summer or early autumn/fall. Gently place the spikes into a paper bag.
Don't shake the spikes.


3
Tie the top of the paper bag up with string. Hang in a warm and dry area for at least a week. When the stems of the flower spike have dried, the seeds can be harvested.


4
Gently rub the flower heads while still in the bag. Tip the seeds into a bowl or pan. Sift out the debris, stems, etc., and discard. Pour the seeds into a small jar, such as a spice jar, label and store. Use next season.

Tips
In all cases, only store in glass or ceramic. Plastic or metallic containers can contaminate the storage medium and spoil the taste.
Basil's flavor is quickly destroyed by heat. It is best used as a garnish, but many of the storage methods outlined here can actually help to intensify the basil flavor, making it go further and infuse dishes better.

Things You'll Need
Suitable storage containers (glass, ceramics, etc. are usually better than plastics for long-term storage)

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錦鯉養殖基本知識

◎飼養與管理的重點 只要不是劇烈的變化,錦鯉很容易適應各水溫水質等環境的變化。並不是沒有大庭園就無法飼養,有人甚至在二樓陽台或頂樓陽台造水池飼養。然而我們是欣賞錦鯉雄壯豪邁之氣,因此水池盡量寬闊為宜,以水深1.2m以上為理想。魚池必須有底水排出,過濾循環等設備。用水不一定要取地下水,自來水也可以飼養。
<因為都市中有景觀安全的需求,及屋頂花園有荷重的需求,錦鯉池水深可以低到30cm左右。>
◎每天排水
A、糞或枯死的藻類全部送至過濾槽的話,耗氧量會增大,pH就下降,更會轉變為亞硝酸,增了過濾槽的負擔。為了盡量減輕過濾槽的負擔,每天至少把魚池的底水排水使固物排出去,把中間水送去沉澱槽及過濾槽。 
B、把固體廢物的魚糞集中排出,最好不要從池底打氣而是從排糞口的上方40~50公分打打氣。如此氣泡往上昇。池水產生對流。污物就集中於排糞口。
<可以設計水流把固體廢物盡量集中或排出到過濾系統中。>
◎過濾槽管理
A、細菌附著於濾材,分解固體廢物會消耗大量的氧。 
B、溶氧不足時,厭氧菌會把硝酸還原亞硝酸,或從碳酸氣發生沼氣,也會從硫酸分解產生硫化氫等有毒氣體。
<如果溶氧不足,可以優先把打氣設備放置到生化過濾槽中。>
◎溶氧要充份
A、水中溶氧不足的話,會影響錦鯉的生育,飼料的消化,,水質的維持等等。
B、硝酸,亞硝酸的濃度增高時,會影響溶氧量。所以優先去除硝酸及亞硝酸。
C、使用沸石可輕易去除硝酸,沸石量約等重於魚體總重量。
<沸石再生法,是將沸石浸泡25℃以上1:10食鹽水數小時,再以清水洗淨即可。>
◎水質的控制
水質硬度高的話,錦鯉肌膚經常會有少許充血的狀態。豔麗性也會慢慢消失,紅緋會上升。pH值低,肌膚變的很不好看,但是雖餵增色飼料,依然不見起色,徒增浪費。pH值7.1~7.5最適宜的。
◎鯉餌的重要性
良好的魚餌不會崩壞鯉的體型。餌的量也是在夏天水溫 高的時候,訂定停餌期間,才是整體來說使鯉變胖最重要的秘訣。如果還是想 要給很多餌的話,要增加循還量。錦鯉在水溫超過28度的時候,應給與相當於 鯉全體重量3%的餌。水溫25度時1.5%,水溫20度時0.3%,16度以下則要停止鯉餌,這就是鯉魚長得強壯的要訣。連續不斷地給鯉餌的話,引起內臟障礙, 而影響到鯉不會長壯,甚至導至體型的變歪。
◎魚病預防
水的管理與定期消毒都是很重要的步驟,…